Shakespearean Prompt-Books
Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century, vol. 8 (Henry VIII) [a machine-readable transcription] Shakespeare, William Creation of machine-readable version: Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Creation of digital images: Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Conversion to TEI.2-conformant markup: University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center. 75 kilobytes University of Virginia Library. Charlottesville, Va. Bibliographic Society, ShaHe8P

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URL: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/bsuva/promptbook/

1997

Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century

Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century, vol. 8 William Shakespeare Editor G. Blakemore Evans

Issued in portfolios. The prompt-books are reproduced in collotype facsimile.

Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 1996 Print copy consulted: First Edition provided by the BSUVA

Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century

Prepared for the University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center.

All quotation marks retained as data.

All unambiguous end-of-line hyphens have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line.

The images exist as archived TIFF images, one or more JPEG versions for general use, and thumbnail GIFs.

Keywords in the header are a local Electronic Text Center scheme to aid in establishing analytical groupings.

Library of Congress Subject Headings 1960-1996 English drama; prose LCSH 24-bit color; 400 dpi May 1997 corrector Michele Ierardi, Electronic Text Center
  • Corrected transcription errors; corrected an error in the print text: note 7 of the introduction: ed Montague] ed. Montague.
  • May 1997 corrector Michele Ierardi, Electronic Text Center
  • Added TEI header
  • Image of the spine: Shakespearean
                                                  Prompt-Books, Vol. VIII

    Image of the cover, part 1: Shakespearean
                                                  Prompt-Books, Vol. VIII: Ki! Henry VIII, The Merry
                                                  Wives of Windsor, Twelth Night, The Comedy of
                                                  Errors, The Winter's Tale

    Image of the titlepage, part 1:
                                                  Shakespearean Prompt-Books, Vol. VIII: King Lear,
                                                  Henry VIII, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Twelth
                                                  Night, The Comedy of Errors, The Winter's Tale

    SHAKESPEAREAN
    PROMPT-BOOKS
    of the
    SEVENTEENTH CENTURY Vol. VIII
    King Lear, Henry VIII,
    The Merry Wives of Windsor
    Twelfth Night, The Comedy of Errors
    The Winter's Tale Edited by
    G. Blakemore Evans A Publication of
    The Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia Charlottesville 1996

    Smock Alley
    Henry VIII
    Third Folio
    Introduction

    TERMINAL dates for the Smock Alley Henry VIII prompt-book (PB) may be set with some confidence as between 1674/75 and 1682. John Totterdale, who is called for the role of the 'third Gentleman' at IV.i.37, seems to have begun appearing on the Dublin stage in 1674 or 1675 but cannot be traced as acting in Dublin after "the early 1680's." [1] and a second actor, Henry Smith, who appears as Griffith in V.ii, died in Dublin in early August 1682. [2] Three other actors are named: Andrews (as Brandon, I.i.161-164, as Gardiner, II.ii. 62, and as a 'Gentleman', III.i [opening, to enter at line 14]); Kaine (as the 'Old Lady', V.i.129); [3] and 'Arstedt' (as a 'Sergeant-at-Armes', I.i.161-164 ). Of the first two actors nothing further is known, and the name of the third is almost illegible and resembles no name associated with Smock Alley at this time. [4]

    Only two hands appear to have worked on the Henry VIII PB. Hand I, which is found also in the Smock Alley Hamlet (Hands I and II), [5] Macbeth (Hands I and II), Othello (Hand II), King Lear (Hand I), and I Henry I V (Hand II), is responsible for the advance character calls, for all but one of the actors' names, occasionally for changes in the original handling of a scene (e.g., II.i), and, I believe, for most of the initial cutting of the play. Hand II, which appears again in the Smock Alley King Lear (Hand II) and, perhaps, in Hamlet (Hand V), is associated with a number of verbal substitutions modernizing or simplifying Shakespeare's language, one character substitution (V.i.79), some revision of Hand I's scene arrangements (e.g., I.i.54-100; see Textual cuts), and probably one actor's name (II.ii.62).

    The work of Hands I and II seems to represent different stages in the "production" of the play, but whether the play was ever produced in some form resembling Hand I's initial version must remain a question, even though Hand I's call for a particular actor (Totterdale) in a part of IV.i that was later cut would appear to suggest an earlier performance in which Totterdale acted the role of the 'third Gentleman' (see Textual cuts).

    One of the confused (and confusing) aspects of this promptbook is Hand I's apparently abandoned attempt to get rid of the character of Campeius. In II.ii, Hand I substitutes the Bishop of Lincoln; in II.iv he first gives Campeius' lines (64-68) to Lincoln and then restores Campeius, leaving Campeius' lines 121-24 untouched but assigning Campeius' speech at 230 to Wolsey; in III.i, he omits Campeius and either cuts his lines or assigns them to Wolsey, adjusting the dialogue to allow for the omission of Campeius through line 139, but abandoning such adjustment for the remainder of the scene. In each instance Campeius appears to have been restored: in II.ii by Hand II, in II.iv by Hand I, while in III.i Hand I's failure to carry through to the end of the scene his adjustment of the dialogue presumably indicates that he finally decided to retain Campeius. [6] Since almost all the changes in II.ii and III.i made by Hand I to allow for the omission of Campeius remain uncanceled, the prompt-book, so far as these two scenes are concerned, is rendered seriously misleading if considered as a functionable prompt-book.

    The Henry VIII PB is unusual in another respect. Except for The Comedy of Errors and The Winter's Tale, neither of which was, I believe, ever produced, it is the only other Smock Alley prompt-book that does not contain scene settings. This absence of scene notation may, perhaps, suggest that some kind of single set was used throughout, a manner of staging not impossible in Henry VIII, which calls for no very radical changes of scene. Curiously, the three earliest published theatre versions (1734, 1762, 1773; see below), like the Smock Alley prompt-book, are also without any indication of setting or scene changes. While, however, it is possible that the single-setting explanation may be arguable for this comparatively early Smock Alley production, the absence of specific scene notations in the eighteenth-century acting texts is almost certainly misleading, at least so far as London productions were concerned, since we know that when Sir William Davenant revived Henry VIII for the Duke's Company at the theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields in December of 1663 the play was rather lavishly presented, "being all new Cloath'd and new Scenes." [7]

    The Henry VIII PB is fairly heavily cut. The equivalent of 595 lines, a figure that includes the Prologue and Epilogue, are finally cut (46 lines originally cut being restored, mostly by Hand II), leaving a play of about 2,316 lines. [8] Compared, however, with the three eighteenth-century acting texts mentioned above and John Philip Kemble's early nineteenth-century acting version, the Smock Alley acting text is comparatively long: Powell (1734), roughly 2,078 lines; Garrick ( 1762), 1,767 lines; Bell (1773), 1,733 lines; and Kemble (1804) 1,666 lines. [9] The play, of course, makes much of its appeal through pageantry and show of various kinds, all of which consume precious stage time. It is therefore surprising that the Henry VIII PB, as in Davenant's earlier production, [10] is the only one of these theatre texts that retains "The Vision" in IV.i.

    The principal cuts are as follows: I.i.54-100 (conversation between Buckingham and Norfolk on the state of the kingdom and its relation to Cardinal Wolsey); I.iv.1-34 (chitchat preceding Wolsey's entry); II.i.1-54 (conversation of 'two Gentlemen' about Buckingham's sentence and Wolsey's hand in it); II.i.136-169 (further comment from the 'two Gentlemen'); II.iii.1-32 (conversation between Anne Bullen and an 'Old Lady' on the desirability of being a queen [lines 33-49 were also originally cut but restored by Hand II]); IV.i. 1-117 (the lines of the three 'Gentlemen' [i.e., all of the dialogue], leaving only the 'show' of 'The Order of the Coronation.'); V.i.1-55 (discussion between Gardiner and Sir Thomas Lovell reporting the plot against Cranmer and Cromwell). A glance at the section on Textual cuts will show that, except for the second (I.iv.1-34), these cuts are closely reflected in the four acting texts referred to above. A similar closeness may frequently be observed in the shorter deletions as well. Such comparative continuity in the cutting of the play suggests a fairly unbroken acting tradition possibly stemming from Davenant's 1663 London revival; indeed, Downes claims that Thomas Betterton, who played the king, was specially instructed in the role by Davenant himself, "who had it from Old Mr. Lowen, that had his instructions from Mr. Shakespear himself.'' [11] The Folio Prologue and Epilogue are unmarked in any way but were almost certainly omitted, as they are in the four later acting texts mentioned above.

    1. See W. S. Clark, The Early Irish Stage (1935), p. 76. In Appendix D Clark gives Totterdale's association with Smock Alley as "c. 1674-c. 1688". Totterdale also appears in the Smock Alley Macbeth (V.v) and Othello (I.ii).

    2. See R. C. Bald, "Shakespeare in Restoration Dublin," PMLA, 56 (1941), 372. Clark (Irish Stage, p. 77) notes a record of Smith's burial on 2 August 1682. Smith also appears in the Smock Alley Macbeth (V.iii) and in the Julius Caesar cast list as Antony (see the General Introduction, Vol. I: Part i, p. 13 of this series.

    3. Bald p. (373) refers to Kaine as a man, but the role calls for a woman; Clark (Irish Stage, p. 77) lists Kaine, "a gentleman in Henry VIII," and Mrs. Kaine, "the old Lady in Henry VIII." I suspect that "Mr." Kaine is a ghost generated from Bald's slip; certainly, I can find no prompt-call associated with a 'Kaine' in the role of a "gentleman" in the Henry VIII PB.

    4. The name could as easily be deciphered as 'Arshed' or'Arsledt'.

    5. See the Introduction to the Smock Alley Lear, p. 2, note 3.

    6. See Textual changes," II.ii.72 s.d. and III.i.23 s.d.; Textual cuts, II.iv.18-34, 64-68.

    7. John Downes, Roscius Anglicanus (1708), ed. Montague Summers, n.d., p. 24: The London Stage 1660-1800. Part I: 1660-1700 (ed. William Van Lennep, 1965), pp. 72-73.

    8. This figure is based on Alfred Hart's total of 807 lines for the whole play (Review of English Studies, 8 [1932], 21).

    9. The Henry VIII Smock Alley PB has been compared throughout with these four acting texts (see Collations, particularly Textual cuts). J. Powell is the Dublin publisher (1734) of a text that claims to present the play 'As it is acted . . . at the Theatres of London and Dublin.' Garrick refers to a version of the play prepared for production at Drury Lane and published in 1762 (Garrick himself did not play in the production). Bell refers to the play as published by John Bell in Vol. IV (1773) of his edition of Shakespeare's Plays, As they are now performed at the Theatres Royal in London, a slightly shortened and revised version of Garrick's 1762 text. John Philip Kemble's acting text (1804) is the first to give scene settings (Theobald, Vol. V, 1733, was the first scholarly editor to introduce scene settings).

    10. See Montague Summers' note in Downes' Roscius Anglicanus, pp. 183-184.

    11. Downes, Roscius Anglicanus, p. 24.

    Collations
    Henry VIII

    Image of page 542 of the Henry VIII
                                                  prompt-book (I.i.36-I.i.137).

    Image of page 554 of the Henry VIII
                                                  prompt-book (III.i.1-III.i.108).

    Image of page 564 of the Henry VIII
                                                  prompt-book (V.i.99-V.ii.20).

    THE following collations are arranged by categories. The act, scene, and line numbering is that of the Globe text ( 1911 ed.). Angle brackets are used to indicate letters (or words) illegible or shaved in binding. Abbreviations employed are as follows:

    • Bell . . . . . . . . . . acting version of Henry VIII as performed at Covent Garden, in Bell's Shakespeare's Plays, Vol. IV (1773)
    • Collier MS . . . . . . .the Collier-Perkins Second Folio (1632), in the Huntington Library
    • F . . . . . . . . . . .here used for Third Folio (1663/64)
    • Ff.....................indicates substantial agreement of all four Folio texts of Henry VIII
    • Garrick ............David Garrick's acting version (1762) of Henry VIII as performed at Drury Lane
    • Kemble...............J. P. Kemble's acting version of Henry VIII (1804) as performed at Covent Garden
    • PB . . . . . . . . . . Smock Alley, Henry VIII promptbook
    • Powell . . . . . . . . . Henry VIII 'As it is acted ... at the Theatres of London and Dublin.' published by S. Powell, Dublin (1734)
    • Powell+....................indicates substantial agreement of Powell, Garrick, Bell, and Kemble
    • s.d. . . . . . . . . . . stage direction (plural s.dd.)

    Scene settings

    The Henry VIII PB, unlike other Smock Alley prompt-books (discounting The Comedy of Errors and The Winter's Tale, preliminary cuttings showing no evidence of stage production), contains no scene notations. Their absence may possibly suggest that a single setting was used throughout (see the Introduction, p. 19).

    Act notations

    Advance calls (i.e., 'Act ready') for the act breaks, all in Hand I, occur at I.iv.82 (for Act II); II.iv.206 (for Act III); III.ii.419 for Act IV); IV.ii.138 (for Act V); V.v.36 (for the conclusion of Act V). A similar final call, for the conclusion of the last act, is found in the Smock Alley prompt-books only in the Twelfth Night PB.

    Actors named for comparatively minor roles

    For what little is known of the actors named below, see the Introduction, p. 17.

    I.i

    161-164 Andrews / Arstedt / 2 or 3 / Guard] Hand I (called to play Brandon, who enters at 198; 'Arstedt' [the reading is very uncertain and may equally well be 'Arched' or 'Arsledt'] is called to play the 'Sergeant at Armes', who enters with Brandon).

    II.ii

    62 endrews] Hand ?II (i.e., Andrews, called to play Gardiner, who enters at 117).

    III.i

    (opening) Andrews / (r)eady] Hand I (called to play a 'Gentleman', who enters at 15).

    IV.i

    37 Mr Totterdale] Hand I (called to play the 'third Gentleman', who enters at 55; all speaking roles in IV.i later cut).

    92-94 Queen / & / Mr. Smyth] Hand I (called to play Griffith, who enters at the beginning of IV.ii).

    V.i

    129 Kaine.] Hand I (called to play 'Old Lady', who enters at 158; in her earlier appearance [II.iii] 'old Lady' has been altered to 'a Lady' in the opening F s.d. by Hand I). Powell reads 'Lady' here and in II.iii; Kemble replaces 'Old Lady' with Lady Denny in both scenes.

    Stage properties

    See below, F stage directions altered: I.iii.18-21; II.ii.45-46; III.ii.3842.

    Sound effects

    See below, F stage directions altered: I.iv.34; I.iv.52-53; IV.ii.21-22; IV.ii.38-42. Hand I does not include in his advance calls entry sound effects (e.g., 'Cornets.' [I.ii], 'Hoboyes.' [II.iv], 'Flourish.' [IV.v.4]), and of the three offstage sound effects called for by F only one (I.iv.49) is noted by Hand I at I.iv.34. Hand I's unspecific advance calls for Katherine's trial (II.iv), Anne Bullen's coronation (IV.i), and Elizabeth's baptism (V.v; see F stage directions altered) make no reference to sound effects.

    Advance character calls

    Hand I is responsible for all the advance character calls except probably that at II.ii.62 (see Actors named for comparatively minor roles). No advance calls for characters entering at the beginning of an act occur, except for a general call for 'The Order of the Coronation.' at the beginning of IV.i.

    F stage directions altered; new stage directions added

    I.i

    (opening s.d.) and the Lord Aburgavenny.] Placed in parentheses by Hand ?II to indicate the omission of Aburgavenny from the scene; his speeches are cut as part of a recutting of this scene by Hand II (see Textual cuts); Kemble also omits the character of Aburgavenny.

    91-92 Cardinall < > / Purse Bearer] Hand I's call is for Wolsey's entry at 115. The illegible word, shaved in binding, may be 'Secretaries' or 'Guard' (cf. the F s.d. 'Enter Cardinall Wolsey, the Purse born before him, certain of the Guard, and two Secretaries with Papers; . . .'). The position of this advance call indicates that it was made before the complete cutting of 54-100 (see Textual cuts).

    200-204 King / Nobles / <Sr> Th<o.> L<ovell> / Cardin<ll> / Attend<ants>] Hand I's call for the entry of Henry at the beginning of I.ii; he adds 'Attend<ants>' to the F. s.d. but omits the F call for 'Cornets'.

    I.iii

    18-21 <Ta>ble / <re>ady & / <Ba>nquett.] Hand I's call for the first part of the opening F s.d. to I.iv, 'Hoboyes. A small Table under a State for the Cardinall, a longer Table for the Guests.' Note omission of 'Hoboyes' and 'a State' and that only one table is called for, though perhaps the 'longer Table' is implied by '<Ba>nquett'. Powell omits any reference to tables or a state: 'Anna Bullen, Gentlemen, Ladies, and Sir Henry Guilford, discover'd.'; Garrick, Bell retain two tables and 'a State'; Kemble reads 'A State for the Cardinal, and a Table for the Guests.' (see Textual cuts).

    I.iv

    34 Drum & Trumpet / ready] Hand I's call in preparation for the F s.d. at 49, 'Drumme and Trumpet, Chambers discharged.' The call is very faint and something illegible follows 'ready', perhaps relating to 'Chambers', which otherwise is omitted by Hand I. Powell reads 'A Flourish; and Guns go off.'; Garrick, Bell simply substitute 'guns' for 'Chambers'; Kemble substitutes 'Cannon'.

    34s.d. all the ladies] Hand I alters the F s.d. 'Hoboyes. Enter Cardinall Wolsey, and takes his State.' by crossing through 'takes his State' and inserting 'all the ladies' above. See Textual cuts. Note omission of F 'Hoboyes.' Powell+ substitute Cromwell for 'Servant' at 52.

    41 King & Dancers] Hand I's call in preparation for the F s.d. at 63, 'Hoboyes. Enter King and others as Maskers, . . .' Note that 'Maskers' become 'Dancers' and that 'Hoboyes.' is omitted. Powell reduces the F s.d. to 'Enter King and others disguis'd, and Lord Chamberlain.'; Kemble reworks the F s.d., 'Enter Cromwell, and Chamberlain, introducing the King, Norfolk, and Suffolk, in masks, and eight Attendants, habited as Shepherds, followed by two Gentlemen.'

    52-53 Musick ready / for the Dance] Hand I's call in preparation for the F s.d. at 76, 'Musick, Dance.'

    II.i

    17-22 <Buc>kingham / <Tip>staves / <Exe>cutioner / <Sr> Tho: / <Lov>ell / <&> others.] Hand I's call for Buckingham's entry at 54. Note that (like Powell+) Hand I adds '<Exe>cutioner' to the F s.d. but omits 'Halberds' and specific reference to 'Sir Nicholas Vaux, Walter Sands, and common people, etc.'. Powell, Garrick, Bell omit Sands and 'common people, etc.'; Kemble omits Sands, Vaux, and 'common people, etc.' but adds Sir Henry Guildford.

    145-146 Ld Chamberlain / with a letter.] Hand I's original advance call in preparation for F s.d. at beginning of II.ii, 'Enter Lord Chamberlain, reading this Letter.' After the cutting of 136-169, Hand I crossed through this call and inserted a new call, 'Chamberlain', at 113, omitting any reference to the 'letter', as well as inserting new calls for Norfolk and Suffolk at 127 replacing those at 152. See Textual cuts. Garrick, Bell, Kemble cut the 'Letter' (II.ii.1-12), including the Chamberlain's first speech.

    II.ii

    73 s.d. and Campeius with a Commission.] Hand I crosses through this part of the F s.d. and inserts '<Bisho>p of Lincoln.' before F 'Enter Wolsey'. Hand I then adapts the rest of the scene to allow for the substitution of Lincoln for Campeius; apparently, however, Hand II determined to restore Campeius (see Textual changes and Textual cuts). For discussion of the confused handling of Campeius here and in II.iv and III.i, see Introduction, p. 18.

    II.iii

    (opening s.d.) Make ready for the show] Hand I's first warning call, written above F s.d., for the trial court scene which opens II.iv.

    (opening s.d.) old Lady] Hand I crosses through F 'old' and substitutes 'a' above. Hand I's advance call at II.ii.117 was simply 'Lady'; the role was presumably played by Mrs. Kaine as in V.i.158. Powell also omits 'old' here and in V.i; Kemble substitutes Lady Denny in both scenes.

    73 All that are con<cern'd> <in> / the play be ready] Hand I's second call for the trial court scene that opens II.iv. The nature of Hand I's calls here and at II.iii (opening) suggests that the numerous characters were 'discovered' already set in their assigned positions, a supposition supported by Powell+; in F the characters enter one after the other as a procession.

    III.i

    23 s.d. Enter the two Cardinals, Wolsey and Campian.] Hand I crosses through 'and Campian' (an error in the Ff for 'Campeius') but carelessly fails to adjust the rest of the F s.d. Campeius is omitted from the scene, the dialogue, but only through 139, being adjusted to refer to Wolsey alone (see Textual changes) and his lines either cut (61-67, 168) or assigned by Hand I to 'Wol:'. Powell, Garrick, Bell retain Campeius; Kemble omits the whole scene.

    III.ii

    70-72 <King> with / <S>chedule / <Sr T>ho: Lovell] Hand I's call in preparation for F s.d. at 106, 'Enter King reading of a Schedule.' Note that Hand I here adds Lovell's entry, necessary for the stage business called for by the F s.d. at 135 but omitted by Ff, an oversight not editorially corrected until Theobald's edition (1733).

    IV.i

    (opening) All the people in the house ready <?for> / the show] Hand I's call, placed above F 'Actus Quartus. Scena Prima.', for 'The Order of the Coronation.' at 35. Like PB, Powell and Garrick omit all dialogue from the scene (see Textual cuts) but retain 'The Order of the Coronation.'; Bell, Kemble omit the whole scene, including the 'Coronation'.

    IV.ii

    (opening s.d.) Enter Katherine Dowager, sick, led between Griffith, her Gentleman-Usher, and Patience her Woman.] Hand I's advance call at IV.i.92 reduces the F s.d. to 'Queen / & / Mr. Smyth' (Smyth playing Griffith) and omits Patience. This is apparently simply an oversight, since Patience is referred to by name three times in the scene and only one of her two speeches is cut. Garrick, Bell, Kemble substitute Cromwell for Griffith.

    21-22 Solemn / Musick] Hand I's call in preparation for the F s.d. at 80, 'Sad and solemn Musick.' Powell, Garrick, Bell retain the F s.d.; Kemble replaces with a four-line song sung by Patience.

    38-42 Dance<rs> / Music<k> / ready <?for> / the Da<nce>] Hand I's call for 'The Vision.' at 82. Powell+ cut 'The Vision.', though Kemble inserts a song (see above, IV.ii. 21-22).

    V.i

    79 s.d. Enter Sir Anthony Denny.] Hand II crosses through 'Sir Anthony Denny' and substitutes 'Surrey'. Hand I's advance call for Denny at 57 is uncanceled and Denny's lines are not reassigned to 'Surrey'. Kemble substitutes Lovell for Denny.

    V.ii

    (opening) Councill Scene ready / & all concern'd in it.] Hand I's call for the meeting of the King's Council introduced following 35 (Globe begins Scene iii at this point). Treated as a 'discovery' scene in Powell+ and probably so in PB (cf. II.iii.73).

    (opening) King aboue] Hand I's call for F s.d. at 19, 'Enter the King, and Butts, at a Window above.' Hand I calls for 'Dr. Butts.' at V.i.165 to enter in Scene ii at 6, but gives no advance call for his re-entry with the King at 19. Kemble substitutes Sir Henry Guildford for Butts.

    V.iii

    95 (= F V.ii. 130) s.d. Enter the Guard.] Hand I gives no advance call for 'the Guard'. Powell+ also do not introduce 'the Guard' here but re-enter the Keeper of the Council-chamber at this point.

    V.iv

    18 (= F V.iii.18) Make ready for the Christening Show all that / are concern'd in it.] Hand I's warning call for the christening procession that opens F V.iv (Globe V.v). The 'Show' seems to be handled as a 'discovery' by Powell, Garrick, Bell; Kemble retains the christening as a procession, as apparently does PB.

    Textual cuts

    It is very difficult to identify the hand or hands responsible for the cutting. My general assumption is that Hand I did most of the initial cutting (by circling lines to be deleted) at the same time that he entered the advance character calls, etc. and that Hand II then revised Hand I's cuts, restored a few lines here and there, proceeded to do some further quite substantial cutting, and crisscrossed many of Hand I's originally deleted lines to make their omission clearer. It is possible, however, that some other hand did the initial cutting by circling the lines to be deleted and that Hands I and II only revised the cutting as this hypothetical third hand had left it. I associate the crisscrossing of many of the circled cuts with Hand II because restored lines are only circled and never crisscrossed. For example, in II.iii, where Hand I, originally intending to retain lines 1-49 (as shown by the position of the advance call for Anne Bullen and the Lady placed at II.ii.117), changed his mind and circled line 1-49 for deletion; Hand II then restored lines 33 ('Nay, . . .)-49, placing 'Stet' in the left margin but crisscrossing lines 1-33 ('... it.') to distinguish them as still being deleted (compare the treatment of II.iv.18-34). Occasionally, shorter deletions are made by crossing through, but by what hand is uncertain.

    I.i

    (opening s.d.) and the Lord Aburgavenny.] See F stage directions altered. 11-12 which had . . . one?] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell+ cut 7-13 ["Twixt . . . Prisoner.']). 14-28 Men might . . . Beggar.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so Bell; Powell, Garrick cut 14-18 ['Men . . . it's.'], 22-28 ['Their. . . Beggar.']; Kemble cuts 14-18 ['Their . . . Beggar.']). 36-38 that former . . . beleev'd.] Circled, Hand ?I (Powell, Garrick, Bell cut 36 ['that . . .']-49; so Kemble, who, however, retains a slightly rephrased version of 36-38 ['that . . . beleev'd ']). 39-45 Nor. As I . . . Function:] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II; Hand II adds, following 38, 'but pray ye' as a link to Buckingham's next speech at 45. 52-53 No mans . . . finger.] Crossed through, Hand ?II (so Powell, Garrick, Bell). 54-100 I wonder . . . Grace.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II; Hand II adds 'Sir' following 54 as a link to Norfolk's speech at 101 (speech-prefix 'Nor.' in 100 cut in error; see Textual changes. Before this long cut was decided on, probably by Hand II, Hand I had already made three short cuts: 54-57 I wonder . . . Earth] Circled; 62-63 But Spider-like . . . note,] Circled ('O! . . . note,' being also crossed through); 78-80 and his . . . Papers.] Circled (the only cut marked in the Collier MS). Powell cuts 57-73 ('Surely . . . Out!'), 78-80 ('and his . . . Papers.'), 100 ('Like it your grace,'); so Garrick, except for cutting 54-73; Bell, Kemble cut 54-73 ('. . . gut,), 78-100 ('and his . . . Grace.'). 106-108 To consider . . . Power.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Bell, Kemble cut 102-108 ('I advise . . . Power.'). 113-114 Loe, where . . . shunning.] Crossed through, Hand I/II. 121 - 123 therefore best . . . blood.] Crossed through, Hand I/II (Powell, Bell, Kemble cut 122-125 ['A Beggars . . . requires.']; Garrick cuts 123-125 ['What . . . requires.']). 127 Me as . . . object.] Crossed through, Hand II, who inserts 'me' at the end of 126 (Powell reads 'Creature' for F 'object'). 130 with your . . . question] Crossed through, Hand II, who substitutes 'weigh'. 131-132 to climb. . . first.] Crossed through, Hand ?II (Powell cuts 140-146 ['. . . again,']; Garrick, 134-145 ['Not . . . it:']; Bell 131-145 ['to climb . . . it:'] Kemble 131-139 ['to climb . . . persons.'], 141-149 ['We . . . passion.']). 134-136 Not a . . . Friend.] Crossed through, Hand ?II (retained, Powell). 139 no persons] Crossed through, Hand II, who substitutes 'none'. 141-149 We may . . . passion.] Circled and crossed through, Hand I/II (see 131-132 above). 152-155 but From . . . gravel!;] Circled, Hand ?I. 157-158 make my . . . attend.] Crossed through, Hand II, who substitutes 'prove it to' (Garrick, Bell substitute 'my lord' for F 'attend'). 171-172 to as . . . dead.] Crossed through, Hand I, who substitutes 'no matter how'. 174-190 Now this . . . peace.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so Powell, Garrick, Bell; Kemble cuts only 182-183 ['for . . . him.']). 205-206 to look . . . present] Crossed through, Hand ?II (so Powell+). 211 Aburgany: Fare you well.] See Textual changes. 212-216 Bran. Nay . . . obey'd.] Circled and crossed through, Hand I/II (Powell, Garrick, Bell reduce 214-216 ['As . . . obey'd.'] to 'The King's Pleasure must be obey'd.'; Kemble cuts 211-216 [. . . Obey d. ])

    I.ii

    37 And danger . . . them.] Possibly crossed through, Hand ?II. 44-50 But you . . . load;] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II; Hand II furnishes a link with 50 ('They say . . .') by inserting 'yet' before F 'But' in 44. Hand I's cut originally included only 44-47 ('But . . . acquaintance.'). 60-65 this makes . . . Will:] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell+ cut 63-65 ['and it's . . . Will:']). 66-67 for Their . . . baseness.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so Powell+). 78-85 which ever, . . . Act:] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell+ cut 76-85 ['we must . . . Act:']). 114-121 yet see, . . . minute:] Circled, Hand ?I, who inserts 'yet' at end of 114 to link with 'He . . .' in 121 (Powell+ cut 112-121 ['his . . . minute:]). 125-126 of him . . . sad.] Crossed through, Hand ?II. 176 Yes, heartily . . . you.] Crossed through, Hand ?II (so Powell, Bell, Kemble). 179-182 For this . . . doe:] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell, cuts 180-182 ['until! . . . doe:']; Bell, Kemble cut 179-182 ['so . . . do: ])

    I.iii

    27-32 as Fights . . . men,] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell, Garrick, Bell cut 34-37 ['They . . . catching it.']; Kemble, the same, but gives 37-38 ['What . . . vanities?'] to Lord Sands). 53 To many . . . Ladies;] Crossed through, Hand ?II.

    I.iv

    1-34 S. Hen. Guilf. Ladies . . . alone.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand ?I; that this cut was not originally intended is shown by the placement of the advance calls, though the decision to cut seems to have been Hand I's (see F stage directions altered). Powell cuts 21 ('His Grace is entring.'). 37-48 This to . . . me.] Circled, Hand I, in two parts, at bottom of F p. 546 and top of p. 547; both parts of the cut are restored by Hand II with 'Stet' (twice). 49 San. I told . . . anon.] Circled, Hand I/II. 57-58 you can . . . Nobly,] Circled, Hand I/II (Kemble cuts 57 ['you . . . tongue ])

    II.i

    1-55 Enter two . . . him.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so Powell+, except that all omit the first half-line [55] of Buckingham's speech). Although included in the circling, the F s.d. at 54 is not crisscrossed and the advance call for Buckingham's entry is given by Hand I at II.i.17 (see F stage directions altered). For the possibility that deletion of these lines was an afterthought, see 136-169 below. 136-169 Exeunt Duke. . . . more.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so Powell+). This cut is in line with the deletion of 1-55 above (i.e., the further commentary of the two Gentlemen on the implications of the execution of Buckingham), but it is clear from the repositioning of the advance calls for the following scene (ii) that these lines (and probably 1-55) were originally intended for inclusion by Hand I (see F stage directions altered).

    II.ii

    73 s.d. and Campeius with a Commission.] See F stage directions altered. 76-78 You'r welcome . . . it:] Circled, Hand I. This is the first textual adjustment made by Hand I to replace Campeius with the Bishop of Lincoln (see Textual changes). 96-98 This good . . . more I] See Textual changes. 99-107 Kin. And once . . . businesse.] The King's and Campeius' speeches circled, Hand I. Hand II with 'Stet' (twice) in left margin restores both speeches to the scene (see Introduction, p. 18). 108 Two equal men:] Crossed through, Hand I. 122-136 Camp. My Lord . . . persons.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand ?II; Hand I originally assigned Campeius' four speeches to 'Linc:' before 122-136 were cut, presumably by Hand II. Powell cuts 131-132 ('. . . rebuke.').

    II.iii

    1-49 An. Not for . . . here?] Circled, Hand I, but crisscrossed, Hand II, only from 1-33 ('. . . stretch it.'), lines 33-49 ('Nay, good . . . here?) being restored, with 'Stet' in left margin, by Hand II (see Textual changes). Powell cuts 5-18 ('Oh, no . . . verilly'), rephrases 22-23 ('Our . . . Queen!') as 'Who wou'd on such Conditions be a Queen?', cuts 25 ('And venture . . . for't,'), 27-33 ('You that . . . it.'), 35 ('Yes troth & troth:'), 36 ("Tis strange'), 37-44 ('but I . . . Boy.'); so Kemble essentially but retains Powell's rephrasing of 22-23, 25, 37-39 ('but I . . . Title:'), 41-42 ('. . . comes to:'). 85 of pounds] Crossed through, Hand I/II (Powell+ cut 81-94 ['. . . Larke:']). 89-92 Forty pence, . . . it?] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (see preceding entry).

    II.iv

    18-34 Alass, Sir . . . discharg'd?] Circled, Hand I, but crisscrossed only from 22-34 ('heaven . . . discharg'd; '), lines 18-22 ('Alass, Sir . . . from me.') being restored by Hand II with 'Stet' in left margin (Powell, Bell, Kemble cut 25-34 ['. . . discharg'd?']). 64-68 Camp. His Grace . . . heard.] Hand I first reassigns the speech to 'Linc', then circles the whole speech for deletion, and finally restores the speech to Campeius and places 'Stet' to the left of 64-68 (Campeius' speech at 121-124 is untouched). 69 Wol. Your pleasure, Madam.] Circled, but marked 'Stet', Hand I. 134-140 (If thy . . . out)] Circled, Hand I/II (so Bell, Kemble). 158-169 You are, . . . inducement.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell, Bell, Kemble cut 163-64 ['never . . . but'], 167-169 [. . . inducement.']; Garrick cuts 163-164 ['never . . . but']). 182-186 enter'd me; . . . Caution.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so Powell, Garrick, plus some other small cuts in the King's speech; Bell, Kemble cut 173-222). 196-206 Then follows, . . . Learn'd.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell cuts 196 ['Then follows, that'], 203-204 ['which . . . well,']; Garrick cuts 196 ['Then follows, that'], 203-204 ['which . . . well,']; Garrick cuts 196 ['Then followes, that']; Bell, Kemble cut 173-222, 223-224 ['but the . . . forward:]).

    III.i

    33-38 My Lords, . . . in:] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell cuts 1-14, 33-53; Garrick cuts 33-39; Bell cuts 33-40 [. . . integritas']; Kemble omits whole scene. 61-67 Camp. Most honoured . . . me.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (speech-prefix 'Queen.' cut in error in 67). Powell, Bell cut 64-65. 74-76 I was . . . businesse;] Circled, Hand I/II. 168 Camp. Madam, you'll . . . Virtues] Crossed through, Hand I/II, a cut that appears to give the rest of Campeius' speech to Wolsey, though rather awkwardly (Powell, Garrick, Bell cut 168-174)

    IV.i

    1-36, 37-117 Enter two Gentlemen, . . . 1. Y'are well . . . coming. . . .2. A Royal . . . Sir. Exeunt.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (i.e., all spoken dialogue in the scene, leaving only 'The Order of the Coronation.' procession). Perhaps Hand I intended to retain the dialogue, since he calls for 'Mr Totterdale' at IV.i.37 to play 'third Gentleman', who enters at 55; no advance calls for 1. and 2. Gentleman since this is beginning of Act IV. It is possible, though unlikely, that the F s.d. and the first three lines of dialogue were intended to be pre- served; they are not circled, falling at the foot of the second column of F p. 559. Powell, Garrick, like PB, retain only 'The Order of the Coronation.' (each in a revised and extended form, Garrick adding 'The Champion's Procession in the Hall.'); Bell and Kemble apparently omit the whole scene, including "The Order of the Coronation.'.

    IV.ii

    95-99 Patience. Do you . . . her.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell+ cut 94 ['Bid the . . .']-99. 168-170 strew me . . . Grave:] Circled, Hand I/II (Powell+ rephrase these lines with some cutting).

    V.i

    1-55 Enter Gardiner . . . servant.] Circled and lightly crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so cut Powell+, all of which introduce Lovell following 60; PB has no advance call for Lovell, who enters at the beginning of V.i in F, where as usual there are no advance calls for the characters entering). 73-74 and in . . . Queen.] Crossed through, Hand ?II. 128-133 their practices. . . done.] Circled, Hand I/II (Powell, Garrick, Bell cut 125-141 ['which I . . . destruction.']; Kemble cuts 126-143 ['I fear . . . me.']).

    V.iii

    20-24 Which Reformation . . . manage.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (speech-prefix cut in error). Powell cuts 21-24 ('for those . . . manage.'); Garrick, Bell cut 29-31 'as of . . . memories,'); Kemble cuts 24-31 ('if we . . . memories.'). 37-45 nor is . . . best.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (Powell, Kemble cut 37-41 ['nor is . . . do:'], 43-45 ['Men that . . . best.']; Garrick cuts 36-37 ['and the . . . well:']; Bell cuts 36-41 ['and the . . . do:'], 43-45 [Men that . . . best.']). 64-65 Win straying . . . away.] Lightly crossed through, Hand ?II.

    V.v

    24-33 Saba was . . . sorrow:] Circled, Hand I/II (Powell cuts 24-25 ['Saba was . . . him:']; Garrick, Bell, Kemble cut 24-29 ['Saba was hen'], 33-55 ['Good grows . . . him.']. 37-40 God shall. . . with her:] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (see preceding entry). 48-50 And so . . . him;] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (see preceding entry). 65-66 never, before . . . any thing.] Hand I/II crosses out all but 'That happy Child,' (Powell+ cut completely). 69-73 and praise . . . thankful!.] Circled and crisscrossed, Hand I/II (so Bell, Kemble; Powell, Garrick cut 69 ['and praise my Maker.']).

    Textual changes

    Hands I and II are both responsible for textual changes. Hand I's are largely concerned with his substitution of the Bishop of Lincoln for Campeius in II.ii and the elimination of Campeius in III.i; Hand II's are concerned with linking cuts, getting rid of archaic or "hard" words, and softening references to God. The resulting readings are unique to PB, unless otherwise noted.

    I.i

    38 Oh you go farre.] Oh you go farre, but pray ye Hand II (the added words are a link, following the cutting of 39-45 ['Nor. As . . . Function:']; see Textual cuts). 48 Once certes, . . . Element] Once faith, . . . Element? Hand II (F 'Once' is a corruption of F1 'One'; Hand II's added question mark does not seem to help the sense). 54 Vanities? I wonder,] Vanities? Sir Hand II (the deletion of 'I wonder,' is the beginning of a long cut that runs through 100; 'Sir' is followed by a vertical stroke with three short horizontals through it, a symbol repeated by Hand II to the left of 101, but it is not clear whether 'Sir' is intended to conclude what is left of Buckingham's speech beginning at 52 or to begin Norfolk's speech at 101; see Textual cuts). 65 gives for him] has given him Hand ?I (one of the lines originally retained before Hand II's cutting of 54-100; see Textual cuts). 104 plentious] your Hand II. 113 Loe, where] Loke, where Hand ?I ('Loke' is not certain, but cf. I.i. 202; 113 ['Loe, . . .]-114 were later cut; see Textual cuts). 124 God] Heavn Hand II (see Textual cuts). 126 revil'd] revil'd me Hand II (deleting 'Me as . . . object.' in 127). 130 with your Choller question] weigh Hand II. 139 no persons.] none Hand II (see Textual cuts). 157-158 make my . . . attend.] prove it too Hand II (Powell, Garrick, Bell retain F, but substitute 'my lord' for F 'attend'). 164 suggests] counseld Hand II. 171-172 to as . . . dead.] no matter how Hand II. 191 thus the] this base Hand II. 194 he were] ye were Hand II (F4 reads 'you were', as do Powell, Garrick, Bell). 202 Loe you] Loke you Hand II (cf. I.i. 113) 211 O my Lord Aburgany: Fare you well.] O my Lord Fare well. Hand II (PB's final arrangement of this scene omits Aburgavenny [see F stage directions altered], as does Kemble, omitting 211; Powell reads 'Farewel, my Lord.'; Garrick, Bell read 'O my Lord, fare ye well.').

    I.ii

    44 others? But] others? yet Hand II ('yet' substituted to link with F 'They say . . .' at 50; see Textual cuts). 110 Quee.] King Hand II (correction of F error). 114-121 yet see, . . . minute:] Hand ?I inserts 'yet' to the right of 114 as a link to 'He, (my Lady) . . .' in 121 (see Textual cuts); Garrick, Bell, Kemble cut 112-121 ('his training . . . minute:') and substitute 'But'. 151 sped] speed Hand II (the change makes no sense; Kemble substitutes 'went'). 190-191 remember of such] Hand ?II deletes F 'of' (Powell reads 'I remember well that Time,'). 201 God] Heavn Hand II (so Powell+).

    I.iii

    27 Pertaining] belonging Hand II.

    I.iv

    94 Sweet heart] Madam Hand II (Powell reads 'Sweet Lady').

    II.ii

    96-98 This good . . . more I] A good man, / A just and Learned Priest, Cardinall Campeius, / I will soone Hand I (part of Hand I's intention to substitute the Bishop of Lincoln for Campeius in this scene; see F stage directions altered at II.ii.73 s.d. and Textual cuts). 122, 124, 125, 127 Camp.] Linc or Linc: Hand I (Hand I mistakenly crossed through the F speech-prefix 'Wol.' at 126 but restored it; see preceding entry and Textual cuts).

    II.iii

    33 Nay, good troth.] Nay, in good troth I woud not be a Queen Hand II. 34 Yes troth] Yes faith Hand II. 56 God] Heavn Hand II (so Powell+). 97 moe] more Hand II (so Powell+, following Rowe). 103 salute] exalt Hand II (Collier MS proposes 'elate').

    II.iv

    206 First I began in private,] I began in private, then Hand ?II. 208 reek] sink Hand ?II (Rowe emends F 'reek' to 'reel'). 230 Camp.] Wol. Hand I.

    III.i

    16 the two great Cardinals] the great Cardinal Hand I (the first of Hand I's changes to allow for the omission of Campeius from this scene; see F stage directions altered at III.i.23 s.d.). 18 their Graces] his Grace Hand I. 19 their businesse] his busnes Hand I (though the 'i' in 'busnes' seems to be lacking, the first 's' seems to be dotted). 21 their] his Hand I. 22 They should . . . affaires] he should be a good man, his affaires Hand I. 24 Graces find] Grace finds Hand I. 28 we] I Hand I. 29 our] my Hand I. 54 We] I Hand I. 60 (Like free . . . opinions,] (Like a free and honest man) my just opinion, Hand I. 61 comforts] comfort Hand I. 69 like honest men] like an honest man Hand I. 73 such men] such a man Hand I. 78 Graces] Grace Hand I. 91, 105, 120, 133 Lords] Lord Hand I. 91, 93, 101, 124 Camp.] Wol: or Wols: Hand I. 97 He tells] I1 tell Hand I ('I1' is uncertain, perhaps just 'I' with an upward flourish). 98 both] thats Hand I. 101 us] me Hand I. 102 holy men] a holy man Hand I. 103 two Reverend Cardinall Virtues] a Reverend Cardinall virtue Hand I. 104 Cardinall Sins, . . . hearts] a Cardinall Sin, and hollow heart Hand I. 139 We] I Hand I (this is the last of Hand I's adjustments to allow for the omission of Campeius, although a number of similar adjustments are required in the remainder of the scene). 168 Camp.] Hand I crosses through the first line of Campeius' speech, including the speech-prefix, thus giving the remainder of the speech to Wolsey (see Textual cuts).

    III.ii

    54 The Lord forbid] Hand I/II crosses through 'Lord' but without substituting another word. Powell, Garrick read 'Heav'n' for 'The Lord'; part of a cut Bell, Kemble. 55 moe] more Hand ?I (so Pope; Powell+ cut 55-56 ['there . . . sooner.]). 192 that am, have, and will be] that I am, have, and will be Hand ?I (the first attempt to deal with a textual crux; see the long note in Cambridge Shakespeare, V [1893], 744-746). What is presumably the same hand has underlined the lemma above and 'crack' in 193. 411 Honours.] Honours, more Hand II (though extra-metrical, Hand II's 'more' clarifies the point of Wolsey's meaning, which only becomes clear with 'again' in 412). 412 weighed] weighted Hand ?II (corrects F error).

    V.iii

    146 mean] means Hand ?II (so Powell, Garrick, Bell, following Pope).

    V.v

    64 O Lord] My Lord Hand ?II.

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