Shakespearean Prompt-Books
Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century, vol. 8 (King Lear) [a machine-readable transcription] Shakespeare, William Creation of machine-readable version: Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Creation of digital images: Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Conversion to TEI.2-conformant markup: University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center. 55 kilobytes University of Virginia Library. Charlottesville, Va. Bibliographic Society, ShaLeaP




Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century

Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century, vol. 8 William Shakespeare Editor G. Blakemore Evans

Issued in portfolios. The prompt-books are reproduced in collotype facsimile.

Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 1996 Print copy consulted: First Edition provided by the BSUVA

Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century

Prepared for the University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center.

All quotation marks retained as data.

All unambiguous end-of-line hyphens have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line.

The images exist as archived TIFF images, one or more JPEG versions for general use, and thumbnail GIFs.

Keywords in the header are a local Electronic Text Center scheme to aid in establishing analytical groupings.

Library of Congress Subject Headings 1960-1996 English drama; prose LCSH 24-bit color; 400 dpi July 1997 corrector Catherine Tousignant, Electronic Text Center
  • Corrected various transcription errors
  • May 1997 corrector Michele Ierardi, Electronic Text Center
  • Added TEI header
  • Image of the spine: Shakespearean Prompt-Books, Vol. VIII

    Image of the cover, part 1: Shakespearean Prompt-Books, Vol. VIII: King Lear,
              Henry VIII, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Twelth Night, The Comedy of Errors, The
              Winter's Tale

    Image of the titlepage, part 1: Shakespearean Prompt-Books, Vol. VIII: King
              Lear, Henry VIII, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Twelth Night, The Comedy of Errors, The
              Winter's Tale

    of the
    King Lear, Henry VIII,
    The Merry Wives of Windsor
    Twelfth Night, The Comedy of Errors
    The Winter's Tale Edited by
    G. Blakemore Evans A Publication of
    The Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia Charlottesville 1996

    In memoriam
    Fredson T. Bowers

    THE present volume, the eighth and last, essentially completes the series I began in 1960, Shakespearean Prompt-Books of the Seventeenth Century . [1] The format of this volume, however, differs substantially from that of the earlier volumes, a format designed to make it possible to include in a single volume the remaining six, hitherto unedited, Smock Alley prompt-books (King Lear, Henry VIII, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Twelfth Night, The Comedy of Errors, and The Winter's Tale) and a second prompt-book (Folger Second Folio) of Twelfth Night of unknown provenience. The reason for this change of format is simple enough: none of these seven prompt-books (with the exception of Henry VIII , in which the great majority of the prompt notations, however interesting, would be illegible if completely reproduced in facsimile) sheds sufficient new light on the special characteristics of Restoration prompt-books to warrant separate treatment of the kind accorded the Smock Alley Hamlet (Vol. IV), Macbeth (Vol. V), Othello (Vol. VI), and A Midsummer Night's Dream (Vol. VII), in which, in addition to a facsimile of the whole prompt-book (Part ii), a transcription of all prompt notations was included (Part i). Moreover, three of these prompt-books (The Comedy of Errors , although considerably adapted for substantial shortening, The Winter's Tale , and the Folger Second Folio Twelfth Night ) are only cuttings of the plays preliminary to the preparation of a functional prompt-book, a category into which the Smock Alley King Lear may also possibly fall.

    The format here adopted for each play arranges, where applicable, the prompt notations, not in seriatim order as in earlier volumes, but in nine categories: (1) Scene settings ; (2) Act notations ; (3) Actors named for comparatively minor roles (Henry VIII only); (4) Stage properties ; (5) Sound effects ; (6) Advance character calls (see below); (7) F (= Third Folio) stage directions altered; new stage directions added; (8) Textual cuts; (9) Textual changes . In only three respects, none of them except the third of significance, is the new format less complete than that followed in the earlier volumes: (1) advance character calls are generally not included in the collations, although any anomalies in such calls are noted and discussed under that heading; (2) the record of the "corrections" inserted in several of the Smock Alley prompt-books (here, Lear, Merry Wives, Twelfth Night ) by a late eighteenth-century hand, and derived for the most part from editions of Shakespeare's works (from Rowe [1709] through Jennens [1770]), is selective, since there is no evidence that associates this meddling hand with either Smock Alley or the theatre; (3) only one to three pages of each prompt-book are reproduced in facsimile, pages chosen to illustrate the one or more prompt-hands that worked on the various stages through which a prompt-book might pass.

    The seven prompt-books referred to above are now in the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington D.C., and are here discussed, analyzed, and partially reproduced by the kind permission of the Trustees.

    My special thanks are more than due to Ruthe Battestin and Penelope F. Weiss of the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia and to Gerald Trett, my press editor, who, uncomplainingly and charitably, turned an untidy and too often inconsistent manuscript into publishable form.

    Finally, I must thank my wife for her support and kind forbearance over this long eight-volume haul (1960-1996). G. B. E.

    1. The Smock Alley prompt-books of I and 2 Henry I V are not included in the series. Until comparatively recently they were known only through a fragment of I Henry IV in the Folger Shakespeare Library (see Shakespearean PromptBooks of the Seventeenth Century , Vol. I: Part i (1960), p. 20), but about 1969 a considerable number of similar fragments of both plays (the butchery being the unholy work of Halliwell-Phillipps to whom these prompt-books at one time belonged) were discovered by Gunnar Sorelius in the Shakespeare Memorial Library in Stratford-upon-Avon; see his article "The Smock Alley Prompt-Books of I and II Henry IV ," Shakespeare Quarterly , 22 (1971), 111- 128, in which these prompt-books are discussed in considerable detail.

    Smock Alley
    King Lear
    Third Folio

    ALTHOUGH the Smock Alley provenience of this King Lear prompt-book (PB), based on a copy of the Third Folio (F) text, is proved by the appearance in it of two prompt-hands common to some other seventeenth-century Smock Alley prompt-books (see below), no exact dating limits, in the absence of any actors names among the prompt notations, can be suggested. There is, however, one peculiar feature of the Lear PB that makes it probable that the production for which it was prepared, though almost certainly before 1700, was after 1681, the year in which Nahum Tate's notorious but long-lived adaptation of Shakespeare's play was first acted and published. [1] Tate, among other less radical "improvements," invented a love affair between Cordelia and Edgar (thus eliminating Cordelia's marriage to the French king), cut out the role of the Fool (not restored until 1838), and, in a "happy" denouement, turned the play from a tragedy into a kind of tragicomedy by allowing Lear, Cordelia, and Gloucester to remain alive: Lear and Gloucester, along with Kent, totter off to 'some cool Cell' to reflect on 'our Fortunes past, / Cheer'd with relation of the prosperous Reign / Of this celestial Pair [Cordelia and Edgar]'. The Smock Alley prompt-book shows no evidence, structural or verbal, of influence from Tate's version until the final scene (V.iii). At this point all advance character calls suddenly cease, the last such call being for Edgar and Gloucester (at V.i.54) in preparation for their entry at the beginning of V.ii. The cessation of advance calls at this particular point suggests, strongly, I think, despite a few cuts by Hand II in V.iii, that Hand I (see below) intended to conclude the play with a somewhat adapted version of Tate's "happy ending." Bizarre, even unlikely, as this may sound, it is, in fact, exactly what George Colman concocted (except for much heavier cutting, some occasional Tateification, and the omission of the Fool) in his alteration of Lear first performed in 1768, restoring Cordelia's marriage to the French king and omitting Tate's sentimental love business between Cordelia and Edgar. [2]

    Three hands can clearly be distinguished in the Lear PB, two prompt-hands and a third intrusive late eighteenth-century hand. Hand I, which appears also in the Smock Alley Hamlet (Hands I and II) [3] Macbeth (Hands I and II), Twelfth Night (Hand I), Henry VIII (Hand I), Othello (Hand II), and I Henry IV (Hand II), is responsible for the scene notations, the advance character calls and sound effects, and for the restoration of two cuts made by Hand II. Hand II, which appears also in the Smock Alley Henry VIII (Hand II) and perhaps in Hamlet (Hand V) initially (i.e., before Hand I's work) went through the play circling lines, phrases, and single words for cutting, occasionally substituting new readings for words that struck him as archaic or "hard." Hand III, which also meddled in the Smock Alley Hamlet (Hand IV), Midsummer Night's Dream (Hand II), Twelfth Night (Hand II), and Merry Wives of Windsor (Hand II), inserts emended readings drawn from eighteenth-century editors from Rowe (1709) through Jennens (1770), [4] as well as a number of apparently original readings. [5] There is no reason to think that Hand III has any connection with the prompt-book's earlier Smock Alley provenience. Hand III's work disappears after II.iv. What may be a fourth hand (though possibly Hand I) may be responsible for the emended reading at III.i.22-25.

    The Lear PB is very lightly cut. Of the roughly 2,920 lines in the Folio text, Hand II marks for deletion only 123 lines and 40 half-lines (plus a few phrases and single words), and Hand I restores 11 of those lines, leaving a play (taking the 40 half-lines as equivalent to 20 lines) of roughly 2,777 lines, [6] comparable in length to the Smock Alley Hamlet (2,806) and Othello (2,808), the later theatre texts of David Garrick (2,318; first acted 1756; first printed in John Bell's Shakespeare's Plays, As they are now performed at the Theatres Royal in London , Vol. II, 1773), George Colman (2,171; first acted and printed 1768), and John Philip Kemble (2,009; first acted and printed 1795, here consulted in Mrs. Inchbald's British Theatre , Vol. IV, 1808). [7]

    Except for the postulated substitution of some form of Tate's "happy ending," discussed above, the Smock Alley Lear (discounting Hand III's much later meddling) shows no significant points of contact, verbally or in cutting, with either Tate's adaptation or the three acting texts referred to above, and they share with the prompt-book only a single scene setting (at IV.vii). All settings are stock and appear in other Smock Alley promptbooks. [8]

    Certain characteristics of the Lear PB may perhaps suggest that, like the Smock Alley Midsummer Night's Dream, Comedy of Errors , and Winter's Tale , it was laid aside and never reached actual production: (1) the absence of actors' names among the prompt notes (contrast the Smock Alley Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Henry VIII, and I and 2 Henry I V ); [9] (2) the failure of Hand I (or some other hand) to insert advance warnings for a number of sound effects called for by the Folio stage directions (see Sound effects ); and (3) the absence of secondary cutting (contrast Smock Alley Macbeth, Hamlet, and Othello ). [10] Although none of these points is necessarily conclusive against stage production, the second being the strongest, taken together they leave the final status of the Lear PB to some degree at least questionable.

    1. In any event, since only two London performances of Shakespeare's Lear , which was assigned to the Duke's Company in 1660, are recorded (1664/65 and 1675) before Tate's 1681 adaptation and since Smock Alley tended to take its cue from London successes, it is probably unlikely that Lear would have been seriously considered for production before 1681.

    2. In 1823 Edmund Kean reversed Colman's arrangement and tacked Shakespeare's tragic denouement (V.iii) onto a text that was basically pure Tate, including the Cordelia-Edgar love affair. For Kean's acting text, see Cumberland's British Theatre , Vol. VI (1826).

    3. In Vol. VI: Part i, of this series, p. 4, note 19, I declared that the hands described as A and C (see the General Introduction, Vol. I: Part i, of this series, p. 17) were in fact a single hand. I have allowed this decision to stand, but I should warn the reader that I am no longer entirely convinced that Hands A and C should be treated as one.

    4. See Vol. I: Part i, of this series, pp. 15-16. I there described Hand III as mid-eighteenth century, but the Lear PB shows that Hand III worked on the Smock Alley prompt-books, or at least on this prompt-book, sometime after 1770, since he appears to make use of Charles Jennens' edition of Lear published in that year. Jennens was the first editor to publish a record of most of the Qq variants and the emendations of editors from Rowe through Johnson (Capell's similar record, though compiled earlier than Jennens', was not published until 1779). Five of Hand III's readings are peculiar to Hanmer's text, which was first published in 1743 (I.i.15, II.i. 94, 97, 111 [not included in the collations], and II.i.70-74 [see Textual cuts ]), but Hand III may have picked them up from Jennens' textual notes.

    5. Three of Hand III's readings (II.i.96 [see Textual cuts ], 99 [see Textual changes ], 125 [see Textual cuts ]) appear elsewhere only in the so-called Collier MS (see J. P. Collier's Notes and Emendations , 1852) and in Collier's 1853 edition (the third reading was later adopted by Alexander Schmidt, 1879). Since the Collier MS (i.e., manuscript readings, supposedly contemporary, inserted in what is known as the Perkins Second Folio [1632] by Collier himself) is a mid-nineteenth-century forgery, it is tempting, though coincidence is barely possible, to suppose that Collier had had access to the Smock Alley Third Folio (1663/64) and purloined these three readings from the Lear PB. Collier may also have taken a hint from Hand III's reading at I.i.230 (see Textual changes ).

    6. My line-count is based on Alfred Hart's total (with allowance made for the Folio text) of 3,205 lines for Lear (see Review of English Studies , 8 [1932], 21) The total of 2,777 for the Lear PB like the following totals for Hamlet, Othello , Tate's adaptation, and the three theatre versions, is, given the considerable amount of prose in these texts, necessarily somewhat of a rough estimate.

    7. See C. B. Hogan, Shakespeare in the Theatre 1701-1800 , I (1952), 44; II (1957), 333-335.

    8. See Vol. I: Part i, of this series, pp. 23-24.

    9. For a full account of the Smock Alley I and II Henry IV , see Gunnar Sorelius, "The Smock Alley Prompt-Books of I and 2 Henry I V ," Shakespeare Quarterly, 22 (1971), 111-128. When I wrote (1960) my General Introduction to this series (Vol. I: Part i, p. 20), I knew only of a single fragment of I Henry IV preserved in the Folger Shakespeare Library. For further comment on Sorelius' important discovery, see Vol. VI: Part i, of this series, p.2, note 4.

    10. In this connection, it should be noted that the Smock Alley Henry VIII PB, although it contains at least four actors' names and seems to show other evidence of actual stage presentation, is without scene notations and omits some of the sound effects.

    Collations King Lear

    Image of page 768 of the King Lear prompt-book (I.iv.363-II.i.46).

    Image of page 768 of the King Lear prompt-book (II.i.47-II.ii.33).

    THE following collations are arranged by categories. The act, scene, and line numbering is that of the Globe text (1911 ed.). Angle brackets are used to indicate letters (or words) illegible or shaved in binding. Abbreviations employed are as follows:

    • Collier MS . . . . . . . . the Collier-Perkins Second Folio (1632), in the Huntington Library
    • Colman . . . . . . . . . ...........George Colman's acting version of Lear, 1768
    • F . . . . . . . . . . .................. Third Folio (1663/64)
    • Ff ........................................indicates substantial agreement of all four Folio texts of Lear
    • Garrick ...................................David Garrick's acting version of Lear, in Bell's Shakespeare's Plays , Vol. II, (1773)
    • Kemble ....................................J. P. Kemble's acting version of Lear , in Mrs. Inchbald's British Theatre, Vol. IV, (1808)
    • PB ........................................Smock Alley, Lear prompt-book
    • Qq .......................................indicates substantial agreement of all Quarto texts of Lear
    • s.d. ......................................stage direction (plural s.dd.)
    • Tate ......................................Nahum Tate's The History of King Lear (1681)
    • Tate+ .....................................indicates substantial agreement of Tate, Garrick, Colman, and Kemble

    Scene settings

    All scene notations are made by Hand I. None of the settings is unique to the Smock Alley Lear (see Vol. I: Part i of this series, pp. 23-24).


    (opening) Court (Tate, no setting; Garrick, 'an Antichamber in the Palace' [changing to 'the Palace' at 35]; Colman, 'the King's palace' ['Scene opens, and discovers King Lear, ' etc. at 351; Kemble, 'An Antichamber in King Lear's Palace' [changing to 'A Room of State in the Palace' at 35]). No further scene notations until II.i.


    (opening) Chamber (Tate, 'Gloster's House'; Garrick, 'a Castle belonging to the Earl of Gloster'; Colman, 'an apartment in the castle belonging to the earl of Glocester '; Kemble, 'The Earl of Gloster's Castle ').


    (opening) Cou<rt> (Tate, no change; Garrick, 'a Court before Gloster's Palace '; Colman, 'the outside of the earl of Glocester's castle '; Kemble, 'Before the Earl of Gloster's Castle '). No further scene notations until III.i.


    (opening) Grou<e> (Tate, Kemble, 'A Desert Heath' [but deleting scene i]; Garrick, Colman, 'A Heath ' [also deleting scene i]). No further scene notations until III.vii.

    (opening) Cour<t> (Tate, Garrick, 'The Palace '; Colman, 'Glocester's Palace '; Kemble, 'An Apartment in the Earl of Gloster's Castle ').


    (opening) Groue (Tate, 'The Field SCENE'; Garrick, Colman, 'an open Country '; Kemble, 'The open Country '). No further scene notations until IV.v.


    (opening) <Ch>amber (Tate, Garrick, Kemble, 'Gonerill's Palace ' [scene omitted, some of Regan's lines here being assigned to Goneril in a short version of IV.ii]; Colman, 'the Duke of Albany's palace ' [essentially IV.ii, with some of Regan's lines assigned to Goneril from IV.v]).

    (opening) Groue (Tate, 'Field SCENE '; Garrick, Colman, 'the Country, near Dover '; Kemble, 'Another Part of the Country ').


    (opening) Chamber (Tate+, 'A Chamber').


    (opening) Gro<ue> (Tate, Garrick, Colman 'A Valley near the Camp '; Kemble, 'The Field of Battle ').

    Act notations

    PB contains no advance warnings of scene changes, but advance calls ('Act') for act breaks, all by Hand I, occur at I.iv.386 (for Act II, I.v being mostly cut); II.iv.266 (for Act III); III.vii.47 (for Act IV; almost entirely cropped); IV.vii.47 (for Act V; this call is hypothetical, the upper right corner of F p. 783, where it would naturally appear, being torn off).

    Stage properties

    The following properties, all in Hand I, are called for:


    14 Torch<es> (in preparation for F s.d. at 38, 'Enter Gloster, and Servants with Torches .').


    94 <stoc>ks (in preparation for F s.d. at 144, 'Stocks brought out.').


    78 Tor<ch> (in preparation for F s.d. at 119, 'Enter Gloucester, with a Torch .').


    2 Chair (in preparation for F s.d. at 20, 'Enter Lear in a Chair, carried by Servants .').

    See below, Sound effects, for 'Drum and Colours '.

    Sound effects

    All sound effects are by Hand I (unless otherwise noted).


    153 Trumpe<t> (in preparation for F s.d. at 185, 'Tucket within .').


    59-61 drum / colou<rs> (in preparation for F s.d. at IV.iv.1, 'Enter with Drum and Colours, . . .' [Ff omit the Qq scene, Scene iii in edited texts]).


    48-49 dru<m> / Colou<rs> (in preparation for F s.d. at V.i.l, 'Enter with Drum and Colours . . .').


    7 The advance call here is uncertain, because the upper left corner of F p. 784 has been torn off, leaving only final 'rs', which may be the remains of either 'drum / Colou<rs>' or 'souldie<rs>' (perhaps both were called for, Hand I including 'souldi<ers>' in the advance call at IV.vii); the advance call is in preparation for F s.d. at 17, 'Enter with Drum & Colours, Albany, Goneril, Souldiers .', but its position is anomalous, since it should have preceded (as at IV.ii.59-61 and IV.vii.48-49) the advance call for Albany and Goneril at the bottom of F p. 783 and may, therefore, have been inserted as an afterthought by some hand other than Hand I.

    Hand I inserts no advance warnings for F sound effects called for at I.i.34 s.d.; II.i.80 s.d.; II.iv.289 s.d.; III.i. (opening s.d.); III.ii (opening s.d.); III.iv.3 s.d., 64 s.d., 104 s.d., 167 s.d.; V.ii (opening s.d.),4 s.d.

    Advance character calls

    Hand I is responsible for all the character calls, all of them advance calls except that for 'Kent / Glouster / Edm:' in I.i, where the call is placed in the left margin opposite 3-5. Hand I omits calls for 'Attendants ' and 'Servants ' called for by F stage directions except at II.iv.128, where '(ser)uants' is included in the advance call at 95. Point of entry is not marked (as, for example, by a crossed horizontal line in the Smock Alley Othello and Twelfth Night ). An advance call for 'Knight' is inserted at I.iv.14, following an advance call for 'stew(ard)' at 8 above. Since the Steward (i.e., Oswald) enters at 48 and, after a half-line, exits, and the Knight's first speech comes at 54, he is presumably meant to enter immediately after the Steward's exit. It is possible, however, that Hand I intended the advance call to mark the Knight's reentry at 5: (as in edited texts since Dyce, who exits him at 51), thus treating the Knight as being among the 'Attendants ' called for in the F s.d. at 7. The missing advance call for Edgar to enter at V. .37 was probably on the torn-off left corner of F p. 784. There is no advance call anticipating the F s.d. at the opening of V.ii, which brings Lear and Cordelia's army 'over the Stage, & Exeunt.', although there is an advance call for Edgar and Gloucester, who enter immediately after this F s.d., at V.i.54 (but no call for Edgar's reentry at V.ii.4). Advance calls cease with V.ii. For the probable implications of this lack of further advance calls by Hand I, see the Introduction, p. 1.

    Textual cuts

    In a few cases, given the slight nature of the evidence, assignment of a reading to Hand III is necessarily tentative.


    126 and] Crossed through, Hand III (so Garrick, Colman, following Pope; omitted in rewriting, Tate, Kemble). 153 answer . . . judgement:] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate, Garrick, Kemble; Colman recasts 152-153 as 'with better judgment check / This hideous rashness; with my life I answer.'). 223-224 That monsters . . . Taint;] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+). 231 or dishonoured step] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate, Garrick, Kemble). 242-243 that stands. . . point,] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+). 247 Nothing,] Crossed through, Hand ?III (singly cut only in PB; part of a larger cut, Tate+; here cut to shorten the line and make it metrically complementary to the preceding half-line, which some editors, following Qq and Pope, effect by omitting F 'I am firm'). 253 that art] Crossed through, Hand ?III (part of larger cut, Tate+; here cut presumably for metrical reasons). 289 most] Crossed through, Hand III (so Colman, following Pope; part of larger cut, Tate, Garrick, Kemble).


    81-82 Abhorred . . . brutish:] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate, Kemble; Colman retains 'Abhorred Villain').


    1-4 Kent . If but. . . likeness.] Circled, Hand II (so Tate, Kemble; speech-prefix here cut in error). 229-233 nor the . . . proceeding,] Circled, Hand II (rewritten and mostly cut, Tate, Kemble; Colman retains 'nor the redresses sleep'). 347 yet, that] Crossed through, Hand ?III (cut presumably for metrical reasons; as singly cut, unique to PB; part of larger cut, Tate+). 370-371 Gon . Nay then-- . . . the'vent.] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+).


    ] Hand II seems to have intended cutting the whole scene, though his circling does not include the last two lines (55-56), which fall at top of the second column on F p. 768; Hand I, with 'stet' in left margin, restores 1-7 and gives an advance call for 'Lear / Ken<t> / gen<t> / fool<e>' at I.iv.147-151, but his intention so far as the Fool's final couplet (55-56) is concerned remains unclear (Tate+ cut the whole scene; Collier MS cuts 8-51).


    16 the better,] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate, Kemble). 54 latch'd mine arm:] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate). 61 My worthy . . . Patron] Circled, Hand II (Tate, Kemble, using part of 60, read 'The noble Duke, my Patron comes to Night,'; Garrick, Colman, following Theobald, read 'My worthy and arch patron, comes to night;'). 70-74 would the reposal . . . it all] Partly crossed through, with insertions, by Hand III, reading 'the reposal / Of any trust, virtue, or worth in thee / would Make thy words faith'd? what I should deny, / (As this I would, ay though thou did'st produce / My very Character) would turn it all'. Hand III's version of these lines is slightly different from all edited texts (part of larger cut, Tate, Garrick, Kemble; Colman retains all but 'what should . . . Character'). Hand III is influenced by Hanmer, who, in 70-72, reads 'the reposal / . . . Would make', and probably by Jennens (or perhaps by Capell, who first inserted 'ay' in 73 [from Qq] before F 'though'). The deletion of F 'No,' (72) is unique to Hand III. 79 and fastned] Circled, Hand II; Hand III then crossed through F 'and', thus following Pope, and retained 'fastned' (so Colman; part of larger cut, Tate, Garrick, Kemble). 96 not] Crossed through, Hand ?III (so Collier MS; part of larger cut, Tate+). 118 You we first seize on.] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+). 119 how ever else.] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+). 125 it] Crossed through, Hand ?III (so Collier MS; part of larger cut, Tate, Kemble).


    18 a Lilly-livered, action-taking,] Circled, Hand II (reduced to 'white-liver'd', Tate, Kemble). 23-24 and the Son . . . Bitch,] Circled, Hand II (so Colman; part of larger cut, Tate, Kemble; Garrick cuts only 'Bitch'). 35 Culleinly] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate, Kemble). 79-90 such smiling . . . Camelot .] Circled, Hand II (rewritten and reduced to three and-a-half lines, Tate, Kemble). 125 compact, &] Circled, Hand II (fate, Kemble rewrite 125 as 'Whilst watching his Advantage this old Lurcher'; Garrick, Colman, following Pope, substitute 'conjunct' from Qq for F 'compact'). 129 For him . . . self-subdued,] Circled, Hand II (omitted in rewriting, Tate, Kemble). 137-138 shew too . . . Grace, and] Circled, Hand II, then doctored by Hand III, who inserts '&' before F 'shew', crosses through F 'too', and inserts 'unto' above F 'malice', thus reading '& shew bold malice unto'. Hand III's reading is unique to PB, but neither Hand III's meddling nor Hand II's original deletion makes grammatical sense in relation to what immediately follows ('Person of my Master,'), Hand II's deletion requiring something like the insertion of 'to the' after F 'respects', Hand III's calling for the insertion of 'the' before F 'Person'. Tate, Kemble rewrite 137-138 as 'You'll shew too small respect, and too bold Malice, / Against the Person of my royal Master,'. 164 A good . . . heels:] Circled, Hand II (so Tate, Kemble).


    83-87 And I . . . Percy.] Circled, Hand II, but restored with 'stet' to left of right rule by Hand I (omitted, Tate+, all of which cut out the role of the Fool). 96 Plague,] Circled, Hand II and crossed through by Hand ?III, presumably for metrical reasons (unique to PB). 103 tends, service,] Circled, Hand II (fate, following Qq, substitutes 'her Service', as do, following Pope, Garrick, Colman, Kemble). 110-113 I'le forbear . . . man.] Circled, Hand II (rephrased in slightly different ways, Tate+). 174 tender-hefted] Hand II (possibly Hand III) smudges out F 'hefted' (so Tate, Kemble). 178 scant my sizes,] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+). 226-228 Thou art . . . bloud.] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+).


    22-25 that their . . . State.] Hand II circled F 'their great Starres', 'set', 'who seem no less', 'the', 'and Speculations' and 'Intelligent'; then Hand I inserted 'are In' before F 'Thron'd' in left margin at 23, the lines thus reading 'that / are In Thron'd and high; Servants / Which are to France Spies / of our State.' Unique to PB; Tate+ omit the whole scene.


    27-34 The Codpiece . . . wake.] Circled, Hand II (omitted, Tate+, as part of the Fool's lines). 41-42 Here's Grace . . . that's] Circled, Hand II (omitted, Tate+, as part of the Fool's lines).


    17-18 my old Master] Circled and crossed through, Hand II, the crossing through being probably not (as ordinarily) the work of Hand III, since the words occur in a prose passage, and Hand III's deletions, except at II.i.70-74, are made for metrical reasons. Tate, Kemble rewrite the whole scene. 22 Curtesie forbid thee,] Circled, Hand II (fate, Kemble rewrite the whole scene).


    103-104 Sayes suum, . . . my.] Circled, Hand II (so Garrick, Colman). 125-129 Swithold footed . . . aroynt thee.] Circled, Hand II. 142-145 Horse to . . . year:] Circled, Hand II.


    29 corky] Circled, Hand II (so Tate+). 65 All Cruells else subscribe:] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+).


    17-18 I must. . . hands.] Circled, Hand II (partly rephrased, Tate, Garrick, Kemble; retained, Colman, reading 'arms', as in Qq and Pope, for F 'names').


    2 As made . . . aloud.] Circled, Hand II (probably deleted because F does not make sense, reading 'made the' for F 1, Qq 'mad as the'). 13-15 that to . . . Anguish.] Circled, Hand II, each line individually (part of larger cut, Tate, Garrick. Kemble; Colman retains but substitutes 'lenient simplex' for F 'Simplex operative').

    120-134 Behold you . . . thee.] Circled, Hand II (Kemble cuts all but 34, 'There's money for thee.'). 164-172 Thou, Rascal . . . able 'em;] Circled, Hand II, 'and' in 168 being separately circled (partly retained, with variations, Tate, Colman, Kemble). 278 Of indistinguish'd . . . will,] Circled, Hand II (so Tate, Kemble; here probably deleted because F does not make sense, reading 'Of' for F1, Q1, 'Oh'). 281-282 the post . . . Letchers:] Circled, Hand II (fate substitutes 'thou Messenger of Lust'; part of larger cut, Kemble).


    6 not clips,] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+).


    4 And self reproving,] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+).


    13-19 and hear . . . th' Moon.] Circled, Hand II (fate, Garrick retain 13-17 ['hear . . . spies:'], substituting 'Sycophants' for Ff, Qq 'poor Rogues' and 'Heav'ns' for 'Gods'; Colman retains 16-17 ['And take . . . spies:'], also reading 'Heav'ns' for Ff, Qq 'Gods'; part of larger cut, Kemble). 132 and fire new fortune,] Circled, Hand II (part of larger cut, Tate+). 136-138 And from . . . traitor.] Circled, Hand II (only 'spotted' end 'traitor' retained in rewriting, Tate+).

    Textual changes

    Both Hands II and III are responsible for a number of verbal changes in the F text. Of Hand II's comparatively few changes, all but one are unique to PB (see I.i.191) and are limited (except for the alteration of two speech-prefixes) to substituting commonplace words for words that by the closing decades of the seventeenth century were considered either archaic or "hard." Hand III, from I.i through II.iv, frequently emends the F text by inserting, usually with a caret, (1) corrections of F's obvious errors (some of these small corrections may, indeed, be the work of Hand II); (2) a few short phrases from the Qq (first introduced into the basic F1 text by Pope); (3) other editorial emendations derived from the editions of Rowe (1709) through Jennens (1770); (4) a few adjustments of lineation and punctuation, also derived from eighteenth-century editions; and (5) a sizable number of emendations that are unique to Hand III (in addition to two [I.i.230; II.i.99] shared only with the Collier MS; see also Textual cuts, II.i.96, 125). Since there is no evidence to suggest that Hand III's doctoring of the text has any connection with PB's Smock Alley provenience, only the readings in category (5), and a few of special interest in categories (3) and (4), have been included in the following collation.


    112 Hecate ] Hand III crosses through the final 'e ', reading 'Hecat ', thus restoring the disyllabic form of F1, Qq 'Heccat ', not otherwise restored until Alexander, 1951. 152 And thy] And into thy Hand III (unique; F omits F1, Qq 'in', first restored by Rowe). 191 Cor. ] Glost Hand II (so Qq, but the context is sufficient to account for Hand II's change; otherwise first corrected by Theobald). 230 murther, or foulness] or other, or foulness Hand III (unique; Hand III, however, neglected to delete the comma after F 'murther' and F 'or' before 'foulness'; compare 'nor other foulness' in Collier MS). 243 you have] you not have Hand III (unique; Hand III adds 'not' for metrical reasons, ignoring Hand II's cut ['that. . . point,' (242-243)]; Pope, also for metrical reasons, reads 'Say will you have her?'). 279 Gon .] Cord Hand II (crossing through F 'Con at 283 thus giving 279-285 ['Let yours . . . prosper.'] all to Cordelia, a unique arrangement that makes no sense for 279-282). 282 worth the want] worth to want Hand III (so Eccles conjecture, 1793; Hanmer reads 'worthy to want' and Hand III probably intended to follow Hanmer, the agreement with Eccles being accidental). 284 covers faults, at] cover faults at Hand III (so Jennens, who, however, retains F comma; the stroke deleting 's' in F 'covers' may have been intended as a 'd', following Hanmer, who reads 'Who cover'd faults at'). 287 to us] to'us Hand III (unique; perhaps intended to indicate an elided form, the line being given as verse in Ff, Qq).


    6 So may it] So it may Hand III (unique). 14 less than] less so then Hand III (unique; the reading 'so' is uncertain). 112 smile] smell Hand III (unique). 197 And you] An you Hand III (so Knight, 1842; 'If' Q2-3). 248 weakens, his] weakens, or his Hand III ('or' from Qq, first inserted by Jennens). 336 Pray you content.] I Pray you be content. Hand III (unique, though 'be' was first inserted by Rowe). 362 Get] go Get Hand III (so Jennens).


    57 gassed] frighted Hand II (unique). 68 pight] bent Hand II (unique). 70-74 would the reposal . . . it all] See Textual cuts . 80-81 said he? / Heark, the] said he? Heark / the Hand III (unique arrangement of F 80-81, suggested by Hanmer, who, however, reads 'said he? hark! / Hark, the'). 99 Yes, Madam, he] Yes, Madam, yes he Hand III (elsewhere only in Collier MS). 109 bewray] betray Hand ?II (so Qq, but the reading is uncertain, since what is here taken as a 't' written over F 'w' may only be intended as a crossing through of 'w', giving a form 'beray' [= defile, disfigure]; no editors substitute Qq 'betray' or, as here perhaps, 'beray'). 122 prize] weight Hand II (unique).


    1 dawning] morning Hand II (F 'dawning' heavily inked through by Hand II, whose reading is unique; Qq read 'even'; Tate alters to 'morrow'). 137-138 shew too . . . Grace, and] See Textual cuts .


    35 meiny] serva<nts> Hand II (unique; Hand III writes what is presumably intended as a gloss on F 'meiny', partly illegible but ending '< > / < > / or Troop', itself a unique gloss). 136 tyed] tyr'd Hand ?III (so Sympson / Roderick, 1765; Hand ?III's reading is very uncertain, being badly smeared). 174 tender-hefted] See Textual cuts . 242 Yea] Yes Hand ?II (unique).


    22-25 that their . . . State.] See Textual cuts .


    20 well be-met] well met Hand II (F 'be-' smudged out; unique).