Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth centuryShakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century, vol. 8 William Shakespeare Editor G. Blakemore Evans
Issued in portfolios. The prompt-books are reproduced in collotype facsimile.Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 1996 Print copy consulted: First Edition provided by the BSUVA
Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century
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Library of Congress Subject Headings 1960-1996 English drama; prose LCSH 24-bit color; 400 dpi July 1997 corrector Catherine Tousignant, Electronic Text Center
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY Vol. VIII
King Lear, Henry VIII,
The Merry Wives of Windsor
Twelfth Night, The Comedy of Errors
The Winter's Tale Edited by
G. Blakemore Evans A Publication of
The Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia Charlottesville 1996
Third Folio &
Folger Second Folio
I: The Smock Alley Twelfth Night
THE Smock Alley Twelfth Night prompt-book (PB) like the Smock Alley Merry Wives of Windsor and King Lear, contains no actors' names, but it is tied to other Smock Alley prompt-books (1) by inclusion in S. W. Singer's list of twelve plays in "a tattered copy of the third folio of Shakespeare," which showed abundant evidence of a theatrical provenience (i.e., the Smock Alley Third Folio [1663/64] before it was broken up by Halliwell-Phillipps); (2) by the appearance of a prompt-hand (Hand I) that occurs in the Smock Alley Hamlet (Hands I and II; c. 1676-79), Macbeth (Hands I and II; c. 1674-82), Henry VIII (Hand I c. 1674/75-79), Othello (Hand II; c. 1677-78 or 1682-83), I Henry IV (Hand II; c. 1675-85) andKing Lear (Hand I; ? after 1681). The presence of Hand I in these other plays, ranging in date from about 1674 to 1685, suggests that the Smock Alley Twelfth Night probably falls somewhere within the same general span. If we add to this the possibility that Francis Baker, who played Falstaff in I and 2 Henry IV, also played Sir Toby Belch (Thomas Betterton played both roles in London), then at least a terminal date of 1685, the year in which Baker left Smock Alley to act with the United Company in London, may be set for the Smock Alley Twelfth Night.
Hand I, the only prompt-hand in the Smock Alley prompt-book, is responsible for scene settings, stage properties (one call only), sound effects, advance character calls, stage directions altered or added (one of each), textual cuts (five only), and textual changes (one only). Hand I, however, makes no attempt to modernize syntax or language. A second hand (Hand II), an eighteenth-century hand that also appears in the Smock Alley Hamlet (Hand IV), King Lear (Hand III), Merry Wives of Windsor (Hand II), and Midsummer Night's Dream (Hand II), as usual emends the Third Folio text by inserting emendations proposed by editors from Rowe (1709) through Hanmer (1743). Only selective readings by Hand II are recorded in the Collations (see Textual changes).
Like the Smock Alley Merry Wives, the Smock Alley Twelfth Night is very lightly cut (only 10 lines out of a total of 2,429). Of its five cuts, two (I.ii.62; III.i.52-54) may have been made to remove "bawdry"; one (II.iv.87) because of an error in the Third Folio text that makes nonsense of the line; and two (II.iv.5-6; III.iv.290-292) because the passages concerned are not immediately clear in meaning. A few lines may possibly (though not, I think, probably) have been cut on Folio pages 265 and 266, where a substantial part (lower outer corner of sig. Z1) has been torn away, affecting the text as follows: III.i.59-99 ('bring a . . . own'), enough inner marginal text remaining to rule out any cuts; III.i.124-163 ('Myself . . . pride,'); III.ii.6-50 ('And. Marry I . . . although the'); III.ii.76-III.iii.18 ('ever believe . . . firm,'), enough outer marginal text remaining to rule out any cuts.
The Smock Alley Twelfth Night has been compared throughout with the following theatre texts (the first possibly earlier than the Smock Alley PB): Folger Second Folio Twelfth Night cuts about 36 lines; (2) Douai MS Twelfth Night (1694), cuts about 266 lines; (3) Twelfth Night in John Bell's Shakespeare's Plays, As they are now performed at the Theatres Royal in London, Vol. V (1773), cuts about 235 lines; (4) John Philip Kemble's Covent Garden Twelfth Night (n.d., about 1811), cuts about the same number of lines as in (3), but individual cuts differ. The so-called Collier MS has also been consulted.
The scene settings are stock (occurring in other Smock Alley prompt-books) and are limited to three: 'Presence' (used once), 'Towne' (used three times), and 'Court' (used or implied thirteen times). The last two are the most frequently used among Smock Alley settings; 'Presence' appears elsewhere only in Othello. Obviously, it was not intended to mount Twelfth Night with any unnecessary expense.
Because both the Smock Alley Twelfth Night and Merry Wives  are, comparatively, so lightly cut, it is tempting to think that they may represent first steps in the preparation of the final prompt-books and that some hand other than the main prompt hand (Hand I in both) was expected to go over the play again with an eye to more substantial cutting. Against such a view, however, except for the lack of significant cutting, both are quite adequate to serve as actual prompt-books. Moreover, the comparatively small amount of cutting (c. 36 lines) in the Folger Second Folio Twelfth Night PB, of uncertain date and possibly earlier than the Smock Alley Twelfth Night, suggests that Twelfth Night at least, if not Merry Wives, was not considered as a play demanding much shortening. Finally, the length of both plays after cutting (Smock Alley Twelfth Night, c. 2,419 lines; Folger Second Folio Twelfth Night, c. 2,393 lines; Merry Wives, c. 2,582 lines) is considerably less than the Smock Alley acting texts of Hamlet (c. 2,860 lines) and Othello (c. 2,808 lines).
1. The Text of Shakespeare Vindicated (1853), pp. vi-vii.
2. For an explanation of the telescoping of Hands I and II in Hamlet and Macbeth, see Introduction to the Smock Alley Lear, p. 2, note 3.
3. The line-count here is based on Alfred Hart's count of 2,429 lines for Twelfth Night (Review of English Studies, 8 , 21). Because of the substantial amount of prose in Twelfth Night, line-counts are more than usually open to variation depending on the format of the particular text being referred to.
4. Neither the Folger F2 PB nor the Douai MS Twelfth Night shares cuts with the Smock Alley PB.
5. See General Introduction, Vol. I: Part i, pp. 23-24, of this series.
6. See Introduction to the Smock Alley Merry Wives PB, p. 43.
II: The Folger Second Folio Twelfth Night
The Folger Second Folio Twelfth Night (hereafter Folger F2 PB) has no connection, so far as I know, with Smock Alley and is of unknown provenience. Like the Smock Alley prompt-books, however, it also belonged at one time to Halliwell-Phillipps, who describes it in his Some Account of the Antiquities, . . . In the Possession of James Orchard Halliwell, Esq. F.R.S. (1852). Of its history before 1852, however, nothing is known, although it seems probable that it has a London (or English provincial) rather than a Dublin origin. Whatever its provenience, Folger F2 PB was never completed: all prompt notations cease after IV.ii, thus ruling out its use as a workable prompt-book.
The absence of any scene settings in Folger F2 PB suggests a question. Does this indicate, perhaps, that this prompt-book should be dated some time before 1660, after which changeable scenery became common in the public theatres? One characteristic of this prompt-book, however, suggests that it is more probably post-Restoration: the marking of the point of entry for a character by a horizontally slanted and crossed line, an entry signal often appearing in Restoration prompt-books, but not, to my knowledge, found in earlier prompt-books.
A single prompt-hand worked on the Folger F2 PB, which, though it is the only prompt-hand, I have called Hand I. It has some superficial points of likeness with Hand I in the Smock Alley Twelfth Night PB, but it is, I am sure, a different hand, and one that does not appear elsewhere in other Smock Alley prompt-books. Hand I is responsible for the act notations, calls for sound effects, advance character calls, Folio stage directions altered or added, textual cuts, and textual changes. It also, with some consistency, marks points of entry with a horizontally slanted and crossed line (see note 8), usually placed in the right or left margin.
The Folger F2 PB has been very lightly cut (c. 36 lines, leaving a play of c. 2,393 lines), though slightly more heavily cut than the Smock Alley Twelfth Night. Of its four cuts, two (II.iii.39-47, 115-121) shorten or cut song lyrics, and two get rid of dated references to 'the old Hermit of Prage' and 'King Gorbodacke' (IV.ii.13-23) and to 'the old vice' with his 'Dagger of Lath' (IV.ii.133-141). There is no agreement between these cuts and those in the Smock Alley PB, further evidence, aside from Hand I, disassociating the Folger F2 PB from a possible Smock Alley provenience.
The Folger F2 PB has been compared throughout with the same theatre texts listed above for the Smock Alley Twelfth Night.
7. P. 115, Item 91: "The Play of Twelfth Night, from the edition of 1632, a play-house copy of about the date 1640, with the names of the characters in the place where they were to be in readiness to take their parts etc. fol[io]. This volume is extremely interesting, as showing the plan of an early performance of the play. It is curious to observe how little is omitted from the original text. The places for 'Musicke' are noted. Instead of the song at the end of Act iv, Sc. 2, we have only the following lines, I am gone, Sir, and, anon, Sir / Ile be with you againe, sir." Halliwell-Phillipps fails to note that this PB was never completed, and the date, "about 1640," is presumably only his best guess.
8. See, for example, Hamlet and Othello (both Smock Alley; Folger Shakespeare Library), Comedy of Errors ('Nursery'; University of Edinburgh Library), John Wilson The Cheats (King's Company, London; MS at Worcester College, Oxford), and James Shirley, The Sisters (King's Company, London; Sion College, London).
THE following collations are arranged by categories. The act, scene, and line numbering is that of the Globe text (1911 ed.). Angle brackets are used to indicate letters (or words) illegible or shaved in binding. Abbreviations employed are as follows:
- Bell . . . . . . . . . . Twelfth Night, ed. Francis Gentleman, in Bell's Shakespeare's Plays, Vol. V (1773)
- Collier MS . . . . . . . . the Collier-Perkins Second Folio (1632), in the Huntington Library
- Douai MS . . . . . . . . MS of Twelfth Night (1694), in the Douai Public Library
- F . . . . . . . . . . . here used for Third Folio (1663/64)
- Ff.....................indicates substantial agreement of all four Folio texts of Twelfth Night
- Folger F2 PB . . . . . . . the Folger Second Folio Twelfth Night prompt-book, in the Folger Shakespeare Library
- Kemble J. P. Kemble's acting version of Twelfth Night (n.d., about 1811)
- PB . . . . . . . . . . used to refer to both the Smock Alley Twelfth Night prompt-book and to Folger F2 PB Twelfth Night
- s.d. . . . . . . . . . . stage direction (plural s.dd.)
Hand I is responsible for all the scene notations in the Smock Alley PB. No scene notations in Folger F2 PB.
(opening) Presence (Bell, 'SCENE the Palace'; Kemble, 'A Room in Duke Orsino's Palace' [reverses scenes i and ii]).
(opening) Towne (Bell, 'SCENE the street'; Kemble,' The Seacoast').
(opening) Court (Bell, 'SCENE Olivia's house'; Kemble, 'A Room in Olivia's House').
(opening) Court (thus continuing the setting; Bell, 'SCENE the palace'; Kemble, 'A Room in Duke Orsino's Palace').
(opening) setting continued (Bell, 'SCENE Olivia's house'; Kemble, 'A Room in Olivia's House').
(opening) Towne (Bell, 'SCENE the street'; Kemble, 'A Seaport').
(opening) Court (Bell, setting continued; Kemble, 'A Street before Olivia's House' [reverses scenes II.i and II.ii]).
(opening) setting continued (Bell, 'SCENE Olivia's house'; Kemble, 'A Dining-room in Olivia's House').
(opening) setting continued (Bell, 'SCENE The palace'; Kemble, 'A Hall in Duke Orsino's Palace').
(opening) setting continued (Bell, Kemble, 'SCENE Olivia's garden').
(opening) Court (thus continuing the setting; Bell, Kemble, as in II.v [Kemble places III.iii after III i]).
(opening) setting continued (Bell, 'SCENE Olivia's house'; Kemble, 'A Room in Olivia's House').
(opening) scene setting lost because of tear in PB (Bell, 'SCENE the street'; Kemble, 'A public Square' [Kemble places III.iii before III.ii]).
(opening) Court (Bell, 'SCENE Olivia's house'; Kemble, 'A Room in Olivia's House'; Bell, Kemble begin a new scene at III.iv.301).
(opening) Town (Bell, 'SCENE the street'; Kemble, 'The Street before Olivia's House').
(opening) Court (Bell, 'SCENE Olivia's house'; Kemble, 'A Gallery in Olivia's House').
(opening) setting continued (Bell, 'SCENE a street'; Kemble, 'Olivia's Garden').
(opening) Court (thus continuing the setting; Bell, 'SCENE a cut wood'; Kemble, 'The Street before Olivia's House').
The Smock Alley PB has advance calls for act breaks ('Act'), all marked by Hand I, at I.v.302 (for Act II); II.v.176-177 (for Act III; almost entirely cropped); III.iv.386 (for Act IV; almost entirely cropped); IV.iii (opening) (for Act v); V.i.270 (for end of Act V; almost entirely cropped; elsewhere found only in Smock Alley Henry VIII PB).
Folger F2 PB has advance calls for act breaks ('Act / ready' or 'Act') at I.v.307 (for Act II); II.v.204-205 (for Act III); III.iv.289 (for Act IV; almost entirely cropped); no prompt notations after IV.ii.
The Smock Alley PB has an advance call for 'letter' (Hand I) at II.iv.107 for Maria to drop at II.v.24 as bait for Malvolio; no call for a letter in F s.d. at II.v.l6. No advance call for a letter at V.i.287, where the F s.d. does call for a letter ('Enter the Clown with a Letter, . . .').
Folger F2 PB contains no prompt calls for properties.
The Smock Alley PB has advance calls, in Hand I, for 'Musique' before I.i (placed to the left of the play's title; no F s.d. calling for music) and at II.iii.202 and above II.iv.31 (almost entirely obliterated) in preparation for F. s.dd. after II.iv.14 and 51.
Folger F2 PB has advance calls, in Hand I, for 'Musicke' at II.iii.204 and II.iv.33-34 in preparation for F2 s.dd. after II.iv.14 and 51 (in both instances the points at which the F2 s.dd. call for music are marked with a horizontally slanted crossed line, the same signal used in PB to mark point of entry for characters); and at III.i.126-127 ('Clock') in preparation for the F2 s.d. ('Clocke strikes.') after 140 (F2 s.d. marked with a horizontally slanted crossed line). A similar advance call in the Smock Alley PB may have been lost when the lower right half of F p. 265 was torn off.
Advance character calls
In the Smock Alley PB all advance character calls are in Hand I. There are no advance calls for characters entering at the beginning of an act. Because of the severe damage to F pp. 265 and 266, advance calls are missing for III.ii (opening) and for Maria's entry after III.ii.69. The advance call for Maria at V.i.80 omits the 'attendants' called for by the F s.d. after 99.
In the Folger F2 PB all advance character calls are in Hand I, and the point at which a character enters is, usually, marked by a horizontally slanted crossed line, even for characters entering at the beginning of a scene, except for the first scene of an act, where, also, there are no advance calls for characters there entering.
F stage directions altered; new stage directions added
In the Smock Alley PB Hand I converts 'and others' in the opening s.d. of II.iv to '<At>tendants' in the advance call above at II.iii.179; he omits 'attendants' in the F s.d. at V.i.99 in the advance call for Olivia at V.i.80.
In the Folger F2 PB Hand I makes the following changes from F2 in entry s.dd.: II.v.204, Maria's entry is dropped from after 204 to after 205 (so Capell; Kemble drops to after 206); III.ii.69, Maria's entry is dropped from after 69 to after 71 (so Kemble); III.i.155, Sir Andrew's entry is dropped from after 155 to after 156 (so Kemble). Hand I places a cross in right margin at III.i.107, perhaps to indicate an exit for Sir Toby, Sir Andrew' and Maria (not in F2; first given by Rowe).
In the Smock Alley PB all cuts were probably made by Hand I.
I.ii.62 Be you . . . be,] Underlined, most probably for deletion (Bell, Kemble retain, but Kemble substitutes 'page' for F 'Eunuch').
II.iv.5-6 More then . . . times.] Circled (Bell, Kemble cut 1-14). 87 Tell her . . . fortune:] Circled (F reads 'told' for Ff 1-2 'hold', making nonsense of the line; Hand II corrects to 'hold').
52-54 I am . . . chin.] Circled (Bell, Kemble cut 53-54 ['though . . . chin.'], Hand I making the same cut originally, then including 'I am . . . one,').
290-292 Nothing of . . . velour.] Partly circled, probably for deletion.
In the Folger F2 PB all cuts were probably made by Hand I.
39-47 An. I, I. I . . . good.] Short angled lines through speech-prefixes at 39 and 47 suggest a possible cut (Bell cuts 31-59 ['Now a . . . contagion.']; Kemble cuts 32-60 ['there is . . . indeed?']). 115-121 To. But I . . . not.] Between heavy horizontal lines, 117 partly underlined (Bell, Kemble cut 118-121 and read, respectively, F 'Out o'tune sir, ye lye'  as 'Sir, you lie:' and 'You lie.', an adjustment required by Hand I's cut, but not made).
In the Smock Alley PB Hand I makes only one certainly identifiable textual change: IV.ii.32 thus wronged] thus usd (F reading heavily blotted). There are a number of heavy blots obscuring the F text, but only in this instance does Hand I make any attempt to bridge the gap in the underlying F text. Hand II, an intrusive eighteenth-century hand (see Introduction, p. 60), substitutes emendations proposed by Rowe through Hanmer. Only readings uncertainly Hand II's and readings original (or partly original) with Hand II are here recorded. After III.ii.71 Hand II's meddling ceases.
5 sound] South / or Sough Hand II ('south', Pope, Bell, Kemble; 'Sough', Anon. conj. in Cambridge, presumbly later than Hand II's reading).
2 This is] Crossed through, Hand ?II (so Pope, Bell). 7 and] Crossed through, Hand ?II (so Pope, Bell). 11 droving] drivingHand ?II (correction of error in F). 19 unfoldeth to] unfoldeth too Hand II (a possible reading not elsewhere recorded).
122 kick-shawses] kick-shaws Hand ?II (so F4, Rowe, Bell, Kemble). 124 whatsoever] whatsoeer Hand ?II. 139 Sink-a-pace] Cinque Pas Hand II ('cinque pace', Hanmer; Hand II's French form may have been suggested by Sir Toby's 'Porquoy', corrected to 'Pour-quoy' by Hand II, in 95).
In the Folger Fe PB Hand I makes only three textual changes.
75 Duk.] Clo. (correction of an error peculiar to F2).
313 damn'd] hangd (perhaps an attempt to soften Sir Andrew's language).
132 you againe:] you againe: Sir (132 precedes the cutting of 133-141; Kemble reads 'you again, &c.').