Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century.Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century, vol. 2 (Padua Winter's Tale) William Shakespeare Editor G. Blakemore Evans
Issued in portfolios. The prompt-books are reproduced in collotype facsimile.University Press of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 1963 Print copy consulted: UVa Library call number PR 2757 .E9 1960 v.2
Shakespearean prompt-books of the seventeenth century
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Library of Congress Subject Headings 1960-1963 English drama; prose LCSH 24-bit color; 400 dpi July 1997 corrector Catherine Tousignant, Electronic Text Center
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY Vol. II: Part i
Introductions to the Padua
Measure for Measure
The Winter's Tale
Collations Edited by G. Blakemore Evans Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia
EDITORIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
The Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia
ARTHUR F. STOCKER, Chairman
JOHN COOK WYLLIE
The production of this volume was supervised by Fredson Bowers.
- Introduction to Measure for Measure
- Measure for Measure: Collations
- Introduction to The Winter's Tale
- The Winter's Tale: Collations
The Winter's Tale: Padua
THE association of the prompt-book of The Winter's Tale with the Padua Macbeth and Measure for Measure, aside from the fact that it is part of the same University of Padua First Folio, rests on the initials `T S.' found three times in this prompt-book and once in Macbeth. In Macbeth `T S' plays the role of the Doctor in IV.iii; in Winter's Tale he plays a Servant in III.ii and V.i and apparently a 'Lord' in V.i. 178 (though it is possible that his second appearance in V.i is as a Servant again). In the General Introduction I identified `T S' as a certain `Tho: Slender' who had performed in Sir Edward Dering's private production of The Spanish Curate about 1624, and on the basis of these initials and other similar evidence I suggested further that the Padua prompt-books should be assigned to Sir Edward Dering and his group of amateurs.
The prompt-hand that is common to the Padua Macbeth and Measure for Measure does not appear in The Winter's Tale. The prompt-hand in The Winter's Tale (and I can detect only a single hand at work) is of a more markedly secretary cast than that in the other two plays and its spelling forms are noticeably more archaic. Moreover, the owner of this hand employs advance calls for his entering characters and some other anticipative notations, a characteristic which at once distinguishes him from the reviser-prompter in the other two Padua prompt-books. This use of advance calls would seem to suggest a later date for The Winter's Tale prompt-book, but, as I have noticed in the General Introduction, such a system of advance calls was coming into fashion around 1625-31 and might well be found in a prompt-book contemporary with ones still using the older system. One particular prompt-notation also suggests a pre-Restoration date: the prompter's addition of the direction `fflurrish' at five (probably six) places in the text (all non-anticipative) where there is nothing in the Folio to suggest such a direction. So far as I know, Restoration prompters rarely used the term `flourish'; where they noted such calls they more generally employed some form like 'Trumpet sounds' (Smock Alley Othello, IV.i.225) or `So<u>nd here' (Smock Alley Hamlet, I.iv.6), the sounding being prepared for by an advance call `Trumpet ready'.
The Padua Winter's Tale was probably never completed for production. Although the calls for characters are carried through the whole play, the cutting of the play stops with Act I, Scene ii; a fate similar to that which later overtook the Smock Alley Winter's Tale. Such a state of affairs, however, reverses the usual procedure, cutting (at least a preliminary cutting) being ordinarily completed before the character calls or other prompt-notations were inserted. Another unusual feature is the assignment to a particular actor (`T S.') of two small roles at this very early stage in the preparation of the prompt-book.
The prompter is quite erratic in his use of advance calls for the characters, some calls being thirty lines ahead, some as little as seven or eight lines. His `Act' calls are also erratic, one (for Act III) not being anticipative at all (see the Collations). Apart from the character and act calls, with one exception, the notations are non-anticipative. The exception is the advance call for the `Satire Dance' at IV.iv.339-341, a call which is repeated at the point where the dance occurs. The prompter makes no attempt to mark point of entry for his characters when they are called within a scene, and, as usual, there are no calls for characters at the beginning of an act. In general, the prompter deals accurately enough with the frequent massed entries found in the Folio text (see, however, I.ii.204 and III.ii.4-6).
Because the Padua Winter's Tale prompt-book represents an unfinished cutting of the play, one which could never have reached production, only two pages have been reproduced in facsimile: sigs. [2B6]v (p. 300), 2C1r (p. 301). The collation, however, records, as usual, all the prompt-calls, notations, etc. for the play as a whole.
No full acting text of The Winter's Tale is available before Thomas Hull's Covent Garden version which appeared in Bell's Shakespeare, Vol. V (1773). I have used this and J. P. Kemble's Drury Lane version (1802) for comparison with the Padua prompt-book. I have also compared where possible the Smock Alley (unfinished) prompt-book (c. 1670-85) and the cuts in the Collier-Perkins Second Folio.
1. Shakespearean Prompt-Books of the Seventeenth Century, Vol. I, Part i (1960), pp. 8-9.
2. Ibid., p. 7.
3. Compare the frequent additions of `fflorish' in the prompt-book of Lodge's and Greene's Looking Glasse for London and England, which dates from c. 1625 (see C. R. Baskerville, "A Prompt Copy of A Looking Glass for London and England," MP [1932-33] XXX, 37-46). Like the Padua prompt-books, this propmt-book is a printed copy with manuscript prompters' notations.
4. The only Restoration examples I know of are to be found (a) in a prompt-book of Dryden's Tyrannic Love (after 1672), perhaps belonging to the King's Company (see H. H. Adams, "A Prompt Copy of Dryden's Tyrannic Love," Studies in Bibliography [1951-52], IV, 170-174); and (b) in a single notation in the Smock Alley Macbeth (before 1682) at I. iii. 135.
5. The other eighteenth-century versions of The Winter's Tale deal essentially with the Florizel-Perdita part only, although Garrick included the restoration of Hermione (see C. B. Hogan, Shakespeare in the Theatre, 1701-1800, II , 674-676).
Padua Winter's Tale
THE act, scene, and line numbering is that of the standard Globe text (1911 ed.). Angle-brackets are used to indicate (1) missing words or letters; (2) illegible words or letters; (3) doubtful or conjectural readings. The following abbreviations are employed:
- Bell ................ text of The Winter's Tale in Bell's Shakespeare (1773), Vol.V
- Collier MS .......... Collier-Perkins Second Folio (1632) now in the Huntington Library
- F ................... here used for First Folio (1623)
- Ff .................. the four Folios of 1623, 1632, 1664, 1685
- Kemble .............. text of The Winter's Tale in J. P. Kemble's acting version (1802)
- PB .................. Padua Winter's Tale prompt-book
- s.d ................. stage direction
- Smock Alley PB ...... text of The Winter's Tale in the Smock Alley prompt book, Dublin (c. 1670-85)
(2A1r)] PB partly circles this whole scene for deletion. Hull cuts 8-22, 37 (`You . . .') -50.
204 (2A2r) Camillo / [line] ] This call for Camillo to enter (presumably at 209 below) means that he was not meant to enter at the beginning of the scene, although his name in the F s.d. is not deleted. The PB arrangement will not hold in view of Camillo's comments in 213-214 and 215-216. The failure to delete Camillo's name reflects the prompter's regular handling of the F massed s.d's and hence in itself tells us nothing; since the play begins with scene ii, there are no calls for the characters at the beginning of the scene.
220-231 (2A2r) Cam. At the . . . why?] Partly circled (originally only 220-228 marked for deletion). Hull cuts 226-227 (`by . . . extraordinarie?'), 230 (`Leo. Hal . . . longer.'). Of 220-228 Gentleman remarks (Bell, p. 159): "This speech is too obscure and perplexed, to be understood upon transient repetition."
235-284 (2A2r&v) Let that . . . true.] Partly circled (with a rough, wavy line after 249) . Smock Alley PB cuts 252-254, 260-261 (`. . . non-performance;'), 268 (`you . . .')-272; Hull cuts 238-239 (`I . . . reform'd:'), 242 (`To bide vpon't:'), 243 (`If . . . way,'), 243-244 (`. . . requir'd:'), 250-254, 266-267 (`. . . mine.'), 268-271 (`. . . mute)'), 271 (`for . . .') -272, 275 (`then . . .') -278, 283-284 (`. . . true.'); Kemble cuts 249-254 (`My . . . forth'), 260-261 (`. . . non-performance,'), 268-269 (`or . . . Horne)'); Collier MS cuts 252-254 (`. . . forth').
318-341 (2A2v) Cam. Sir . . . none,] Partly circled with wavy lines. Smock Alley PB cuts 323-324 (`. . . thee.'), 333 (`Could . . . bench?'); Hull cuts 323-325, 329-330, 332-333 (`Would . . . blench?'). [This is the last cut made in the Padua PB.]
347 (2A2v) Polixines / [line]
452 (2A3r) Act / [line] ] This call, 13 lines before the end of the first act, is a warning for the act-break.
19-22 (2A3r) Leontes / Antigonu<s> / Lords / [line] ] Neither F nor PB indicate point of entry; the call in PB appears near the bottom of the second column on page 281 (sig. 2A3r) and anticipates the probable point of entry at 33 (p. 282).
183-185 ([2A4]r) Paulena / gentleman / [line] ] This call correctly breaks down the massed F entry at the beginning of scene ii.
6-7 ([2A4]r gaoler. Emilia / [line] ] This call seems to be for the re-entry of the Gaoler with Emilia at 20 below; there is, therefore, no initial call for the Gaoler, the present call following his first speech.
57-61 ([2A4]v) Leontes / Seruants / Antigonus / Lords / [line]
10 ([2A4]v) Paulina / [line]
167-168 ([2A5]r) Servant / [line]
203-204 ([2A5]v) Act / [line] ] This call occurs only 5 lines before the end of Act II.
21-22 ([2A5]v) King / Lords] Note that the prompter gives `King' (or possibly `king') for the F `Leontes'. Texts generally bring in the `Officers' of the F s.d with Leontes and the Lords; PB, however, enters the `officer' (see below) with Hermione at 11. There is no indication that scene i is omitted in PB; the lack of a call for Cleomenes and Dion is regular at the beginning of an act. In this connection, however, we should note the failure to place a call for Cleomenes and Dion in the next scene (see below, III.ii.4-6). Hull omits the first scene; Kemble places it earlier, after II.ii.
(opening) ([2A5]v) fflurrish / [line] ] This is the first of a number of similar prompt-notes added in PB, notations for which there are no calls in the F s.d.'s. Note that the call is non-anticipative. Kemble opens with `Trumpets sound.'.
4-6 ([2A5]v) Hermione / officer] PB reads `officer' for the F `Officers'. The F `Ladies', who accompany Hermione, is also omitted, an omission which points in the same direction as the single `officer': a desire to cut down the number of extras. However, the Padua Macbeth and Measure for Measure tend to omit F directions for `Attendants', etc. who have no speaking parts. PB also omits any call for Cleomenes and Dion later in the scene, a direction likewise, of course, omitted in F which here uses a massed entry s.d.
130-132 ([2A6]r) Servant / T S. / [line] ] The `T S.' who here plays the Servant I have identified with the `Tho: Slender' who appears in the Dering cast for The Spanish Curate (see the Introduction, p. oo). `T S' also appears in a small role in the Padua Macbeth.
158-159 ([2A6]r) Paulina / [line]
230-232 ([2A6]v) Antigonus / Marriner / [line]
40-41 ([2A6]v) Sheapheard / [line] ] PB gives no call for the Bear!
73 ([2A6]v) Clowne / [line] ] This call is placed on the right side of the lower margin below the bottom rule.
143 (2B1r) Act / [line] ] This act call is placed on the left side of the lower margin below the bottom rule and is not anticipative.
(opening) (2B1r) Act / [line] ] This act call, placed in the right margin opposite `Actus Quartus. Scena Prima.' merely repeats the call at the end of Act III.
16-18 (2B1r) Polixines / Camillo / [line]
39-40 (2B1v) Autolicus / [line]
13-14 (2B1v) Clowne / [line]
121-123 (2B2r) fflorizell / Perdita / [line]
18-24 (2B2r) Sheaphear<d> / Clowne / Polixines / Camillo / Mopsa / Dorcas] What looks like the beginning of a capital letter (smudged) appears below the `D' of `Dorcas'.
59 (2B2v) Dance / [line] ] This call is non-anticipative.
166 (2B2v) Servant / [line]
201-202 (2B3r) Autolicus / [line]
303-304 (2B3r) Servant / [line] ] This is a re-entry call for the Servant; see above 166.
339-341 (2B3v) Satire / Dance / [line]
352 (2B3v) Dance / [line] ] This call duplicates the call at 339-341, except that it is placed, likewise in the left margin, opposite the F s.d. calling for the `Dance of twelue Satyres', thus marking the point at which the `Dance' takes place.
575-576 ([2B4]v) Autolicus / [line]
679-680 ([2B5]r) Clowne / Sheapheard / [line]
866-867 ([2B5]s) Act / [line] ] This call is placed only 6 lines before the end of Act IV.
(opening) ([2B5]v) fflurrish / [line] ] No direction for a `fflurrish' in F; the call is non-anticipative.
69-70 ([2B6]r) Servant / [line] / T S] See above, III.ii. 130-132.
109-112 ([2B6]r) fflorizell / Perdita / Cleomines / [line] ] Cleomenes is here called for his re-entry at 124 below. PB ignores `and others' in the F s.d.
122-123 ([2B6]r) fflurrish / [line] ] No direction for a `fflurrish' in F; the call is non-anticipative.
172-173 ([2B6]v) T S. ] `T S.' is here to play the part of the `Lord'
who enters in F at 178 below. Note the use merely of initials without the role-title as in
other cases (cf.III.ii.130-132; V.i.69-70); hence it is possible that the Lord's part is
taken by the Servant, the role played by 'T S' earlier in the scene.
In the left top margin above the top rule, `5600 ld:' has been written, possibly in the same hand as that used elsewhere throughout this PB. I cannot connect the notation in any way with the PB as such, nor does the abbreviation `ld:' in its context seem to have any meaning (`lb:', of course, would give an easy reading and was used for pounds sterling, but the last letter is clearly a `d'). It is a curious coincidence that `ld:' could mean `Lord' and that `Lord' is the missing role-title connected with `T S.' (see the reproduction of this page).
178 ([2B6]v] PB opposite this line and beside the center rule shows some badly smeared letters which may have been initials or the beginning of a word. The position of the smeared letters makes it uncertain whether they refer in some way to 178 or to 232-233 (the end of the scene).
227 ([2B6]v) Autolicus / gentleman / [line]
233 ([2B6]v) fflurrish / [line] ] PB's notation, placed below the last line of the scene, is not in F; it is non-anticipative and marks the end of scene i. Kemble concludes the scene with `Trumpets sound.'.
8-10 ([2B6]v) gentleman / [line] ] This is a call for F's `another Gentleman' who enters at 23. Note that PB has no call for F's second `another Gentleman' who enters at 29.
189 (2C1r) fflurrish / [line] ] No direction in F. Although this notation, like the one at V.i.233, is placed at the end of the scene, it obviously has reference to the opening of scene iii. Kemble begins scene iii with Trumpets sound.'.
96-98 (2C1v) Musicke / [line] ] No notation in F; the call is non-anticipative. Both Hull and Kemble include a call for music here.
155 ([2C2]r) Between the rules which divide the last line of the play and `The Names of the Actors', PB has the notation `fflurrihell' which looks like a portmanteau of `fflurrish' and `fflorizell'. It is, I think, an error for `fflurrish' (though there is no indication of a `flourish' in F), although the unlikely possibility remains that it is a garbled call for Florizel to speak some kind of epilogue.